Subsequent analyses revealed that the similarity in gene expressi

Subsequent analyses revealed that the similarity in gene expression levels of the Myc module between these two cell types was not just overall, but striking similarities were evident even when comparing the expression of individual genes. We also observed equivalent levels of similarity in the expression of individual Myc module genes between induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs)

and partial iPSCs that are an unwanted byproduct generated during iPSC induction. Moreover, our data demonstrate that partial iPSCs depend on a high level of c-Myc expression for Pfizer Licensed Compound Library concentration their self-renewal properties.”
“Experimental results have shown that palladium complexes with chelating aryl- and alkyl-substituted bis-NHC ligands, including [(H3C-Im)(2)CH2]PdBr2, [(C6H5-Im)(2)CH2]PdBr2, and [(H3CO-C6H4-Im)(2)CH2]PdBr2 are excellent catalysts for the MizorokiHeck reaction. https://www.selleckchem.com/products/VX-770.html To better understand and improve the catalysts, a density functional theory (DFT) study of the Heck reaction has been performed at the B3LYP/6-31G*

level of theory, complemented by M06/def2-TZVP single-point calculations. Different mechanistic pathways have been investigated and compared to available experimental results. The most likely mechanism is a cationic catalytic cycle involving the palladium oxidation states 0 and +II. We also looked at other oxidation states, but on the basis of the calculated Gibbs free energy a +II/+IV mechanism can be excluded. Aryl substitution with electron-donating groups at the para position (e.g., the methoxy group in [(H3CO-C(6)H(4)Im)(2)CH2]PdBr2) AZD5582 datasheet was found to reduce the reaction barrier of the rate-determining step. This is in agreement with the experimental findings for the catalysts. The experimentally observed cis selectivity could also be explained by the DFT study.”
“The objective of this

study was to compare the effects of Aspergillus niger-fermented pine needles and nonfermented pine needles on growth performance and antioxidant capacity in broiler chicks. In total, 300 1-day-old broiler chicks were randomly allocated to 5 dietary treatments, which were then denoted as the control treatment (basal diet); the nonfermented treatment (containing 0.3% and 0.6% nonfermented treatment, respectively, in the starter and grower phase); or the fermented 1, fermented 2, or fermented 3 treatments. The fermented 1, fermented 2, and fermented 3 treatments contained 0.1, 0.3, and 0.5% fermented treatment, respectively, in the starter phase and 0.2, 0.6, and 1.0% fermented treatment, respectively, in the growth phase for 42 d. The results showed that fermentation treated supplementation had no adverse effect on the growth performance of broilers at 42 d of age. The activity of total nitric oxide synthase was significantly (P smaller than 0.

Results There were no behavioral differences between groups OSU

Results There were no behavioral differences between groups. OSU showed attenuated activation across risky and safe decisions in prefrontal cortex, insula, and dorsal striatum, exhibited lower anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and dorsal striatum activation for risky decisions and greater inferior frontal gyrus activation for safe decisions. Those OSU with relatively more stimulant use showed greater dorsal ACC and posterior insula attenuation. In comparison, greater lifetime marijuana

use was associated with less neural differentiation between risky and safe decisions. OSU who chose more safe responses after losses exhibited similarities with CS relative to those preferring risky options. Discussion Individuals at risk for the development of stimulant use disorders presented less differentiated neural processing of selleck chemicals AZD9291 manufacturer risky and safe options. Specifically, OSU show attenuated brain response in regions critical for performance monitoring, reward processing and interoceptive awareness. Marijuana had additive effects by diminishing neural risk differentiation.”
“Background: The objectives of the study were to assess feasibility, continuation rates and patient satisfaction with self-administration of subcutaneous depot medroxyprogesterone acetate

(DMPA-SC).\n\nMaterials this website and Methods: The study included 50 DMPA-seeking women between the ages of 18 and 49 years enrolled at two Florida Planned Parenthood health centers. Participants were taught self-injection during their initial

study visit and, upon proficiency, self-injected one dose in clinic. Participants then injected a series of three more doses outside the health center over 9 months. Continuation rates, feasibility and acceptability were determined by analysis of four postinjection surveys.\n\nResults: Continuation of DMPA-SC at injection 4 was 74% (95% confidence interval 62%-86%). Overall, survey responses from the three at-home injections indicated the method to be convenient (95%), easy (87%) and recommendable to others (94%). Twenty percent of injections were met with difficulty, most commonly cited as plunger resistance. No pregnancies occurred in study.\n\nConclusions: Continuation was high with DMPA-SC self-injection. Participants reported injection to be easy and convenient and are likely to recommend self-administration to other women. Device issues are one potential deterrent. (C) 2012 Elsevier Inc. All right; reserved.”
“Cyclin-dependent kinases from the Cdk5/Pho85 family are thought to play important roles in morphogenesis in species as diverse as yeast and humans.

The results revealed that similar synaptic actions were evoked fr

The results revealed that similar synaptic actions were evoked from the ipsilateral and contralateral PTs, including disynaptic and trisynaptic YAP-TEAD Inhibitor 1 purchase EPSPs and trisynaptic IPSPs. Stimulation of the MLF-evoked monosynaptic and disynaptic EPSPs and

disynaptic or trisynaptic IPSPs in the same motoneurons. All short-latency PSPs of PT origin were abolished by transection of the MLF, while they remained after transection of PT fibers at a spinal level. Hence, RS neurons might serve as the main relay neurons of the most direct PT actions on musculus ( m.) longissimus. However, longer-latency IPSPs remaining after MLF or PT spinal lesions and after ipsilateral or contralateral hemisection of spinal cord Navitoclax indicate that

PT actions are also mediated by ipsilaterally and/or contralaterally located spinal interneurons. The bilateral effects of PT stimulation thereby provide an explanation why trunk movements after unilateral injuries of PT neurons (e.g., stroke) are impaired to a lesser degree than movements of the extremities.”
“Pancreatic adenocarcinoma carries a dismal prognosis and remains a significant cause of cancer morbidity and mortality. Most patients survive less than 1 year; chemotherapeutic options prolong life minimally. The best chance for long-term survival is complete resection, which offers a 3-year survival of only 15%. Most patients who do undergo resection will go on to die of their disease. Research in chemotherapy for metastatic disease has made only modest progress and the standard of care remains the purine analog gemcitabine. For resectable pancreatic

cancer, presumed micrometastases provide the rationale for adjuvant chemotherapy and chemoradiation (CRT) to supplement surgical management. Numerous randomized control trials, none definitive, of adjuvant chemotherapy and CRT have been conducted and are summarized in this review, along with recent developments in how unresectable disease can be subcategorized according to the potential for eventual curative resection. This review will also emphasize palliative care and discuss some avenues of research that show early promise.”
“OBJECTIVE: To SHP099 mouse describe the first case of bortezomib-induced capillary leak syndrome (CLS), a rare but potentially life-threatening condition characterized by the shift of intravascular fluid and protein to the interstitial space.\n\nCASE SUMMARY: A 65-year-old female with relapsed multiple myeloma developed fluid retention, ascites, and general anasarca following bortezomib administration (1.3 mg/m(2) on days 1, 4, 8, and 11). Aggressive albumin infusion and loop diuretics did not lead to improvement and the patient received 2 sessions of hemodialysis for pulmonary edema. Although the bortezomib dose was reduced (0.

This compartment likely contains CSCs since it

is express

This compartment likely contains CSCs since it

is expressing the putative CSC markers CD44, ALDH1 and CK14. This cell layer therefore should be considered a major therapeutic target in the treatment of head and neck cancer. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Purpose: To prospectively evaluate the clinical effectiveness of snapshot inversion recovery (SNAPIR), which is a dedicated optimized inversion-recovery-prepared single-shot fast BTSA1 Apoptosis inhibitor spin-echo T1-weighted sequence, in the delineation of normal fetal brain anatomy compared with that of the currently used T1-weighted gradient-echo protocol, which often yields images of poor quality due to motion artifacts and inadequate contrast.\n\nMaterials and Methods: This study was approved by the hospital research ethics committee,

and informed written consent was obtained from all patients. Forty-one fetuses were examined at 19-37 weeks gestation (mean, 29 weeks gestation) by using both the standard T1-weighted protocol and the optimized T1-weighted SNAPIR protocol with a 1.5-T Apoptosis inhibitor imager. Two independent blinded observers performed qualitative analysis, evaluating overall diagnostic quality, detailed anatomic delineation, and severity of motion artifacts. Quantitative analysis comprised calculation of contrast ratios (CRs) for the cortical gray matter, subplate, white matter, and cerebrospinal fluid. The Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to compare image rating scores, the paired t test was used to compare CRs, and kappa statistics were used to test interobserver agreement.\n\nResults: Both overall diagnostic quality (P < .001) and detailed anatomic delineation (P < .001) were enhanced with SNAPIR compared with the standard T1-weighted acquisition. Also, motion artifacts were

less severe (P = .008) and less extensive (P < .001) with SNAPIR. Corresponding CRs were increased with SNAPIR in seven of eight examined regions.\n\nConclusion: https://www.selleckchem.com/products/mln-4924.html SNAPIR is a promising robust alternative to the current T1-weighted acquisitions; its role in the detection of disease requires further study. (C) RSNA, 2010″
“Background: Guidelines recommend evaluation of cardiac function, valvular and ischemic heart disease, and thyroid, kidney, and liver function on initial diagnosis of atrial fibrillation (AF). Hypothesis: We hypothesized that initial workup of patients with newly identified AF would vary by age, sex, and burden of comorbid illness. Methods: In a retrospective analysis of a large sample of commercially insured patients 18 to 64 years old (n = 40 245) and a nationally representative 5% cohort of Medicare beneficiaries 65 years or older (n = 204 676), we measured claims for guideline-recommended services for initial evaluation of AF among patients with a new diagnosis between 2000 and 2008.

Results:The MRI could diagnose correctly 10 cases of hydr

\n\nResults:\n\nThe MRI could diagnose correctly 10 cases of hydronephrosis, one case of polycystic kidney disease (PCKD), one case of RA, two normal case and two cases of intra-abdominal masses (IA Mass) (16 of 18 cases). The prenatal ultrasound could diagnose correctly eight cases of hydronephrosis, Selleckchem GDC 973 one case of PCKD, one case of renal agenesis, one case of multicystic kidney disease and one case of IA Mass (12 of 18 cases). The prenatal ultrasound and MRI gave different diagnoses in eight cases and gave the same diagnosis in 12 cases. The MRI could diagnose the aetiology of congenital renal cysts in 10 of the 20 studied cases (50%).\n\nConclusion:\n\nMagnetic resonance imaging

can be used as a complementary tool in the assessment of sonographically suspected fetal renal anomalies.”
“Background: Various amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) subtypes have been identified as single domain (SD) or multiple domain (MD), with differential probabilities of progression to Alzheimer disease (AD). Detecting the differences in the alterations in gray matter (GM) and intrinsic brain activity between

the subtypes of aMCI help to understand their pathophysiological mechanisms and was conducive to construct such potential biomarkers to monitor the progression of aMCI. Methods: In all, 22 normal controls (NCs), 18 patients with SD-aMCI, and 17 patients with MD-aMCI participated in the study. The amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFFs) during rest represented intrinsic brain activity. Voxel-based Pitavastatin clinical trial morphometry analysis was used to measure the GM volume. Results: The MD-aMCI showed reduced GM in hippocampus (Hip), parahippocampal gyrus (PHG), and other regions than SD-aMCI. The SD-aMCI had reduced GM only in Hip and PHG than in NC. The MD-aMCI showed decreased ALFF in posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and precuneus and increased ALFF

in selleck products anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), PHG, and Hip compared with both SD-aMCI and NC. However, no ALFF difference was found between SD-aMCI and NC. Neuropsychological measures were correlated with ALFF in PCC and ACC only in the MD-aMCI. Conclusions: Patients with MD-aMCI displayed more severe GM atrophy and ALFF changes than patients with SD-aMCI. The results suggested that aMCI is heterogeneous and that MD-aMCI may be a prodromal stage which is more close to AD.”
“Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a frequently occurring disease in young people, which is characterized by chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. The therapy of IBD is dominated by the administration of anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive agents, which suppress the intestinal inflammatory burden and improve the disease-related symptoms. Present treatment strategies are characterized by a limited therapeutical efficacy and the occurrence of adverse drug reactions.

The deposition of the aerosol was evaluated in the nasal delivery

The deposition of the aerosol was evaluated in the nasal delivery components (ventilator tubing and cannula) and an in vitro adult nose-mouth-throat (NMT) model using 3 realistic breathing profiles. RESULTS: Significant improvements in dose delivered

to the exit of the NMT model (ex-NMT) were observed for both condensational growth methods using intermittent aerosol delivery compared with continuous delivery, and increasing the tidal volume was found useful. The combination of the largest tidal volume with the shortest intermittent Vadimezan mw delivery time resulted in the lowest respiration losses and the highest ex-NMT delivered dose. CONCLUSIONS: Intermittent aerosol delivery using realistic breathing profiles of submicrometer condensational growth aerosols was found to be efficient in delivering nasally administered drugs in an in vitro airway model.”
“The first synthesis of 7,8-dihydroxy-1-methylnaphtho[2,3-c]furan-4,9-dione (1), an isofuranonaphthoquinone produced by an Actinoplanes strain is described. Lactone ring opening of 6-methylfuro [3,4-c]furan-1(3H)-one BEZ235 molecular weight (4) with ortho-lithiated veratrole (3), oxidation of product alcohol 5, and Friedel-Crafts acylation of the resulting aroylcarboxylic acid 7 afforded the mono methyl

ether 2 of the target compound. The latter was obtained by demethylation of 2 with BBr(3) in 14% overall yield. While mono ether 2 was distinctly more cytotoxic than catechol 1 against a panel of five

cancer cell lines, only the latter showed a siderophore-like binding affinity for Fe(III) with a complex dissociation constant K(D) of approximately 10(-29) M(3) (pM = 25.9). (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background and Purpose-Quantification of early ischemic see more changes (EIC) may predict functional outcome in patients with basilar artery occlusion (BAO). We tested the validity of a novel CT score, the posterior circulation Acute Stroke Prognosis Early CT score (pc-ASPECTS).\n\nMethods-Pc-ASPECTS allots the posterior circulation 10 points. Two points each are subtracted for EIC in midbrain or pons and 1 point each for EIC in left or right thalamus, cerebellum or PCA-territory, respectively. We studied 2 different populations: (1) patients with suspected vertebrobasilar ischemia and (2) patients with BAO. We applied pc-ASPECTS to noncontrast CT (NCCT), CT angiography source images (CTASI), and follow-up image by 3-reader consensus. We calculated sensitivity for ischemic changes and analyzed the predictivity of pc-ASPECTS for independent (modified Rankin Scale [mRS] score <= 2) and favorable (mRS score <= 3) outcome.\n\nResults-Of 130 patients with suspected vertebrobasilar ischemia, 72% ( 94) had posterior circulation stroke, 8% ( 10) transient ischemic attack, and 20% (26) nonischemic etiology.

Statistical analyses indicated a significant increase in the freq

Statistical analyses indicated a significant increase in the frequency of vessel elements and an increase in fiber-tracheid diameters in OPS individuals. These characteristics are considered structural adaptations to increased water needs caused by a greater exposure to sunlight. Continuous pruning may be responsible for the tyloses observed in OPS plants. The greater lengths and higher frequencies of the rays in SSCS trees may be due to the S3I-201 ic50 greater diameters of their branches.

Our results suggest that M. glabra develops structural adaptations to the restinga micro-environmental variations during its development.”
“We report on the case of a 38-year-old male patient with a huge extramural gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST) of the stomach, located in the left upper and middle

abdominal cavity that was diagnosed on the basis of a spontaneous rupture and consecutive haemoperitoneum. The lesion was resected completely in an emergency operation. The tumour was classified as a high-risk lesion for aggressive biological behaviour and with regard to tumour rupture with perforation of the serosa, an adjuvant systemic therapy was indicated.”
“Neck pain is a common health problem that restricts activities GNS-1480 inhibitor of daily living. The Neck Disability Index (NDI) was developed to assess disability in patients with neck pain. check details The normative score and the cut-off value are mandatory to assess an individual patient or a certain patient group for clinically important neck pain with disability, by distinguishing it from nonsignificant pain. The objective of the present study was to determine the normative

score and the cut-off value of the NDI.\n\nA total of 1,200 participants who registered with an internet research company were interviewed on the website about their episodes of neck pain during the previous 4 weeks, and completed the online NDI questionnaire. If the participants reported neck pain, they were also asked about the disability in activity of daily living it caused, and the presence of associated symptoms in upper limbs. Disability was defined according to the consensus study on the standardization of back pain definitions. The normative score was determined by calculating the mean in the participants, and the cut-off value was determined by the receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis.\n\nThe prevalence of neck pain was 37.8 %. Demographic data of the participants also indicated that they were representative of the normal population in Japan. The mean score was 6.98, and the median was 2. The NDI score was higher in middle age, and at its peak in the 50s age group (50-59 years of age). The female mean was significantly higher.

Malformation in TWE and TWE-mixed waters was significantly higher

Malformation in TWE and TWE-mixed waters was significantly higher than in the control and upstream water samples. Tail muscle height of tadpoles also significantly see more decreased in TWE and TWE-mixed waters. Heavy metals were not detected in any samples. Total nitrogen, total phosphorous, and chemical oxygen demand in TWE markedly increased together with a decrease in dissolved oxygen in July. The increase in organic and inorganic loading following precipitation could have made TWE and TWE-mixed water not suitable for embryonic development. Though being managed based on physicochemical criteria, the water

quality of TWE may not be sufficient to assure normal development of amphibian embryos. An amphibian developmental toxicity assay would be helpful for the water-quality management of TWE and urban freshwater systems in Korea. Environ Toxicol Chem 2014;33:954-961.

(c) 2014 MEK inhibitor review SETAC”
“Dr. Rotunda is the co-inventor of a patent that describes the use of deoxycholate as a method to treat localized fat.”
“Succinic acid-producing Anaerobiospirillum succiniciproducens was anaerobically grown in a glycerol-fed continuous bioreactor in order to investigate the physiological responses of the cell to different pH values (5.9, 6.2, or 6.5) and various dilution rates, D. In these experiments, A. succiniciproducens showed a pH-dependent glycerol consumption behavior. When pH was maintained at 5.9 or 6.5, glycerol started to accumulate even at a very low D of 0.027 h(-1). Succinic acid yield was not significantly affected by the

pH of the culture or the Ds. However, more acetic acid formation was observed when the growth rate of A. succiniciproducens was fast on glycerol at pH 6.2 (at D a parts per thousand yen 0.15 h(-1)). Autophagy inhibitor The highest obtainable succinic acid/acetic acid ratio was 40:1, which was 10 times higher than that obtained by batch cultures grown on glucose. The maximum obtainable productivity of succinic acid was 2.1 g L(-1) h(-1)), which was 14 times higher than that obtained by batch culture.”
“Recently, mutations of the isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) 1 gene, which specifically occur in the majority of low-grade and secondary high-grade gliomas, have drawn particular attention of neuro-oncologists. Mutations of the IDH1 gene have been proposed to have significant roles in the tumorigenesis, progression and prognosis of gliomas. However, the molecular mechanism of the role of IDH1 mutants in gliomagenesis remains to be elucidated. The present study, showed that forced expression of an IDH1 mutant, of which the 132th amino acid residue arginine is substituted by histidine (IDH1(R132H)) promoted cell proliferation in cultured cells, while wild-type IDH1 overexpression had no effect on cell proliferation.

The inherent tumor-tropic and drug-resistant properties make MSCs

The inherent tumor-tropic and drug-resistant properties make MSCs ideal carriers for toxic payload. Nano-engineered MSCs were prepared by treating human MSCs with drug-loaded polymeric nanoparticles. Incorporating nanoparticles in MSCs did not affect their viability, differentiation or migration potential. Nano-engineered

MSCs induced dose-dependent cytotoxicity in A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells and MA148 ovarian cancer cells in vitro. An orthotopic A549 lung tumor model was used to monitor the in vivo distribution of nanoengineered Lazertinib purchase MSCs. Intravenous injection of nanoparticles resulted in non-specific biodistribution, with significant accumulation in the liver and spleen while nano-engineered MSCs demonstrated selective accumulation BI 6727 in vivo and retention in lung tumors. These studies demonstrate the feasibility of developing nano-engineered MSCs loaded with high concentration of anticancer agents without affecting their tumor-targeting or drug resistance properties. Published by Elsevier B.V.”
“The aim of this case series is to describe the surgical technique and postoperative outcomes for endoport-assisted microsurgical resection (EAMR) of cerebral cavernous malformations (CCM). Significant manipulation of subcortical white matter

tracts may be necessary for the successful resection of CCM located in deep brain regions. Minimally invasive neurosurgical devices such as endoport systems can decrease disruption of the cortex and white matter tracts overlying deep-seated CCM through small cranial and dural openings. The role of endoport technology in modern CCM surgery is incompletely understood. Three patients with symptomatic CCM underwent EAMR at our institution using the BrainPath endoport system (NICO Corporation, Indianapolis, IN, USA). Complete resection was achieved in two patients. One patient with a large 4.5 cm callosal CCM was left with a small

residual lesion. There were no postoperative complications Selleckchem OSI744 and all patients were functionally independent (modified Rankin Scale score 2 or less) at follow-up. Based on our initial experience with EAMR for CCM we believe the endoport can be an effective alternative to traditional retractor systems. Due to the nature of the small craniotomy and durotomy performed for endoport placement EAMR has the potential to improve surgical outcomes by reducing postoperative pain, analgesic requirements and hospital stays. Therefore, EAMR may be considered for appropriately selected CCM patients, although additional experience is necessary to improve our understanding of its role in CCM management. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Rationale: By creating artificial communications through bronchial walls into the parenchyma of explanted lungs (airway bypass), we expect to decrease the amount of gas trapped and to increase the rate and volume of air expelled during forced expirations.

This series comprised 15 patients (10 women, 5 men), mean age 42

This series comprised 15 patients (10 women, 5 men), mean age 42.6 years. According to the McCormick scale, 5 patients were class I, 4 class II, 1 class III and 5 class IV. GNS-1480 in vivo No tumour was radically resected, while 11 patients underwent subtotal resection, 4 only biopsy. Morbidity/mortality was 20% (1 dead and 2 patients

deteriorating on the McCormick scale). Thirteen tumours were classified as low-grade, 1 as grade III and one as glioblastoma. During the follow-up period (mean 29.3 months) 5 patients died, 4 due to tumour progression. Median overall survival was estimated at 35.8 months. Younger age (p = 0.03), male sex (p = 0.04) and the presence of tumour cyst (p = 0.01) were identified as positive prognostic factors influencing overall survival. Other prognostic factors from the literature are discussed and treatment recommendations are made on the basis of its reviewing.”
“The effect of temperature on the food

consumption rate and the digestive enzyme activities of Clarias batrachus (80.60 +/- 5.34g) were evaluated. Fish were exposed to six different temperatures of 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 degrees C following an acclimation temperature of 25 degrees C. The rate of temperature change was 2 degrees Cday(-1). Highest food consumption was recorded at 25 degrees C. It gradually reduced with decreasing water temperature. Food consumption rate was significantly (P smaller than 0.05) lower at 10 degrees C compared with other treatments. Hence, 46.67, 8.20-23.58 and 1.02-6.15% reduced food consumptions were recorded in groups exposed at 10, 15 and 20 degrees C temperatures, respectively, compared with the 25 degrees C. The consumption rate was click here not affected in fish exposed at 30 and 35 degrees selleck chemicals llc C. Total protease, trypsin and chymotrypsin activities were significantly (P smaller than 0.05) higher in fish exposed at 25 degrees C compared with others. Lipase activity was significantly

(P smaller than 0.05) higher in fish exposed at 30 degrees C compared with others. Lowest enzyme activities were recorded at 10 degrees C. Water temperature below 25 degrees C affected the food consumption and digestive enzyme activities in fish that served as indicators of stress in fish.”
“Objective-Cardiac valvular endothelium is unique in its ability to undergo endothelial-to-mesenchymal transformation, a differentiation process that is essential for valve development and has been proposed as mechanism for replenishing the interstitial cells of mature valves. We hypothesized that the valvular endothelium contains endothelial cells that are direct precursors to osteoblastic valvular interstitial cells (VICs).\n\nMethods and Results-Clonal cell populations from ovine mitral valve leaflets were isolated by single cell plating. Mitral valvular endothelial and mesenchymal clones were tested for osteogenic, adipogenic, and chondrogenic differentiation, determined by the expression of lineage-specific markers.