capecitabine-based chemoradiation is an effective, well-tolerated treatment for these patients. Neoadjuvant therapy for borderline resectable PDA warrants further investigation using treatment schedules that can safely intensify irradiation selleck screening library dose.”
“The modification of the electronic current resulting from Stark resonances has been studied for the semiconductor nanowire with the double-barrier structure. Based on the calculated current-voltage characteristics, we have shown that the resonant tunneling current is a periodic function of the width of the spacer layer. We have also demonstrated that the simultaneous change of the source-drain voltage and the voltage applied to the gate located near the nanowire leads to almost periodic changes of the resonant tunneling current as a function of the source-drain and gate voltages. NU7026 concentration The periodic properties of the resonant tunneling current result from the formation of the Stark resonance states. If we change the electric field acting in the nanowire, the Stark states periodically acquire the energies from the transport window and enhance the tunneling current in a periodic manner.
We have found that the separations between the resonant current peaks on the source-drain voltage scale can be described by a slowly increasing linear function of the Stark state quantum number. This allows us to identify the quantum states that are responsible for the enhancement of the resonant tunneling. We have proposed a method of the experimental observation of the Stark resonances in semiconductor double-barrier heterostructures. (C) 2013 AIP Publishing LLC.”
“Vaccinia virus (VACV) strain MVA is a highly attenuated vector for vaccines that is being explored in clinical trials. Compound C mouse We compared the CD8(+) T-cell immunogenicity of MVA with that of a virulent laboratory strain of VACV (strain WR) in BALB/c mice by examining epitope-specific responses as well as estimating
the total number of activated CD8(+) T cells, irrespective of specificity. We found that MVA elicited total CD8(+) T-cell responses that were reduced by at least 20-fold compared with strain WR in BALB/c mice. In C57Bl/6 mice, we also found a substantial difference in immunogenicity between these VACV strains, but it was more modest at around fivefold. Of note, the size of responses to the virulent WR virus was similar in both strains of mice suggesting that BALB/c mice can mount robust CD8(+) T-cell responses to VACV. Although the data for total responses clearly showed that MVA overall is poorly immunogenic in BALB/c mice, we found one epitope for which strong responses were made irrespective of virus strain. Therefore, in the context of a vaccine, some recombinant epitopes may have similar immunogenicity when expressed from MVA and other strains of VACV, but we would expect these to be exceptions.
At the end of a 4-week period, 1 h peritoneal equilibration test was performed. Serum lipids find more and certain cytokines, mediators, markers, and antioxidant enzyme activities in serum and dialysate were studied. Peritoneal thickness was measured and peritoneal inflammation, fibrosis, and vascular proliferation were scored in histological sections. Main findings: In histological examinations, inflammation, fibrosis, and vascular proliferation were significantly more frequent in PD group
than Sham group and it seemed to decrease significantly when atorvastatin was used in conjunction with PD. Additionally, peritoneum was significantly thicker in PD group when compared to that of Sham and TX groups. Serum parameters did not significantly differ between groups. On the other hand, dialysate glutathione reductase (GR) activity and TGF-beta were significantly lower in TX group than that of the PD group, whereas dialysate IL-6 level was higher in TX group. Principal buy LY2157299 conclusions: In our study, atorvastatin use appeared to diminish structural changes in peritoneum. Decreased expression
of TGF-beta in dialysate may be one of the possible underlying mechanisms.”
“Purpose of review\n\nBariatric surgery is an important option for the treatment of severe (type III) obesity. Its role in the management of type 2 diabetes in overweight and obese patients needs to be defined.\n\nRecent findings\n\nIntensified medical therapy can achieve target metabolic goals in many but not all patients with type 2 diabetes. Bariatric surgery can normalize or improve glycemia in severely obese patients with type 2 diabetes. The complications of bariatric surgery are significant and include operative mortality,
early and late surgical complications and late nutritional deficiencies. Comparative studies of bariatric surgery versus intensive medical therapy in the management and clinical outcomes of patients with type 2 diabetes are needed to evaluate relative risk/benefit of each. Bariatric surgery studies in type 2 diabetes are lacking long-term GSK2245840 follow-up metabolic and clinical outcomes data.\n\nSummary\n\nCurrent data are insufficient to recommend bariatric surgery as a primary treatment for type 2 diabetes. However, it can be recommended for patients whose target metabolic control cannot be achieved by intensive glycemic control because of intolerance or inadequate responses to nutritional and pharmacologic treatments.”
“Immuno-compromised patients are at high risk for all kind of infections. Unfortunately, they need central venous catheters (CVCs), which are associated with infectious complications. In this study we examined the effectiveness of chlorhexidine-silver sulfadiazine impregnated CVCs to prevent catheter-related infections in patients receiving high-dose chemotherapy followed by peripheral stem cell transplantation.
In addition, nodules formed by R. etli rpoH1 and rpoH2 rpoH1 mutants showed premature senescence. It was also determined that fixNf and fixKf expression was affected in rpoH1 mutants. Both rpoH genes were induced under microaerobic conditions and in the stationary growth phase, but not in response to heat shock. Analysis of the upstream region of rpoH1 revealed a sigma(70) and a probable sigma(E) promoter, whereas in rpoH2, one probable sigma(E)-dependent promoter was detected. In conclusion, the two RpoH proteins operate under different stress conditions,
RpoH1 in heat-shock and oxidative responses, and RpoH2 in osmotic tolerance.”
“This 4EGI-1 concentration paper is concerned with optimal harvesting policy for predator-prey system of three species with age-dependent. The existence and uniqueness of non-negative solution of the system are proved using the fixed
pint theorem. The existence of optimal control strategy is discussed, optimality conditions are derived by means of normal cone and Dubovitskii-Milyutin’s general theory. Our results extend some known criteria.”
“Our objective was to examine the association of attention deficit and disorganization in boys with and without specific developmental disorder of motor function. Four groups of boys between the age of 7 and 12 years(1) Disorganization + coordination disorder (n = 30); (2) Coordination disorder (n = 33); (3) Disorganization (n = 28); and (4) Control (n = 29)were included. Teachers completed the Questionnaire for Assessing the Students’ Organizational Abilities for the Teacher and the Conners’ Teachers Rating SCH727965 clinical trial Scale-Revised. The Movement Assessment
Battery for Children and 2 subscales of an intelligence test (vocabulary and similarities) were administered. A significantly increased rate of attention deficit in children with organizational deficit was identified. Attention deficit in children with specific motor disorder was exclusively associated with an organizational deficit. Organizational deficit in childhood is highly associated with attention deficit, and this association is particularly relevant in children with specific coordination EPZ004777 concentration disorder.”
“Hsp70 molecular chaperones are implicated in a wide variety of cellular processes, including protein biogenesis, protection of the proteome from stress, recovery of proteins from aggregates, facilitation of protein translocation across membranes, and more specialized roles such as disassembly of particular protein complexes. It is a fascinating question to ask how the mechanism of these deceptively simple molecular machines is matched to their roles in these wide-ranging processes. The key is a combination of the nature of the recognition and binding of Hsp70 substrates and the impact of Hsp70 action on their substrates. In many cases, the binding, which relies on interaction with an extended, accessible short hydrophobic sequence, favors more unfolded states of client proteins.
Necropsy of 5 fresh carcasses revealed pulmonary congestion, consolidation, and hemorrhage. Histopathological changes in lungs from 2 of these
seals included a necrotizing lymphocytic and histocytic lobar pneumonia with intra-lesional bacteria. A coronavirus (CoV) was detected in archived tissues from 1 of the 5 seals via a degenerate PCR for nidoviral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), and was subsequently TPCA-1 cost confirmed via specific PCR. Based on the partial RdRp sequence, the CoV was identified as a novel, divergent member of the CoV group 1a. The virus is tentatively named harbor seal coronavirus (HSCoV). The clinical significance of HSCoV and its involvement in the etiology of the epizootic pneumonia and deaths of the
harbor seals is uncertain.”
“This study reports the isolation and characterization of 28 polymorphic microsatellite loci developed from black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus), which is an important DZNeP solubility dmso freshwater fish in China. The polymorphism was assessed with 32 individuals. Results showed that the numbers of loci alleles ranged from 2 to 19, and the values of observed and expected heterozygosities were from 0.2609 to 1.0000 and from 0.2417 to 0.9385, respectively. These markers are potentially useful for black carp population genetics analysis.”
“Pathogens resistant to most conventional anti-infectives are a harbinger of the need to discover and develop novel anti-infective agents and strategies. Endogenous host defense peptides (HDPs) have retained evolution-tested efficacy against pathogens that have become refractory to traditional antibiotics. Evidence indicates that HDPs target membrane integrity, bioenergetics, and other essential features of microbes that may be less mutable than conventional antibiotic targets. For these reasons, HDPs have received increasing attention as templates for development of potential anti-infective
therapeutics. Unfortunately, advances toward this goal PD98059 price have proven disappointing, in part owing to limited understanding of relevant structure-activity and selective toxicity relationships in vivo, a limited number of reports and overall understanding of HDP pharmacology, and the difficulty of cost-effective production of such peptides on a commodity scale. However, recent molecular insights and technology innovations have led to novel HDP-based and mimetic anti-infective peptide candidates designed to overcome these limitations. Although initial setbacks have presented challenges to therapeutic development, emerging themes continue to highlight the potential of HDP-based anti-infectives as a platform for next-generation therapeutics that will help address the growing threat of multidrug-resistant infections.”
“Context: Paraquat (PQ; 1,1′-dimethyl-4,4′-bipyridinium dichloride) is highly toxic and accounts for a large proportion of the herbicide poisonings seen in clinic. The major cause of mortality is respiratory failure.
Health impacts were usually referred to in the sections on the definition of problems and the analysis of impacts. Seldom were they reported on in the sections on policy options, comparing options, or in the monitoring
and evaluation sections. Conclusion: The results partly support concerns about the potential neglect of health impacts. The results also suggest that health is not considered an important factor when discussing alternative policy choices, and neither does it seem Cediranib inhibitor to be an important objective. There is a clear need for further exploration on ways in which health could be more appropriately considered when impacts of other policies are considered by the various DGs.”
“It has been suggested that phenotypic plasticity is a major factor in the diversification of life, and that variation in host range in phytophagous insects is a good model for investigating this claim. We explore the use
of angiosperm plants as hosts for nymphalid butterflies, and in particular the evidence for past oscillations in host range and how they are linked to host shifts and to diversification. At the level of orders of plants, a relatively simple pattern of host use and host shifts emerges, despite the 100 million years of history of the family Nymphalidae. We review the evidence that these host shifts and the accompanying diversifications were associated with transient polyphagous stages, as suggested by the oscillation hypothesis. In addition, we investigate all currently polyphagous nymphalid species and demonstrate that the state of https://www.selleckchem.com/products/cobimetinib-gdc-0973-rg7420.html polyphagy is rare, has a weak phylogenetic signal, and a very apical distribution in the phylogeny; we argue find more that these are signs of its transient nature. We contrast our results with data from the bark beetles Dendroctonus, in which a more specialized host use is instead
the apical state. We conclude that plasticity in host use is likely to have contributed to diversification in nymphalid butterflies.”
“In the UK, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)-associated skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) are predominantly managed in the hospital using intravenous (IV) glycopeptides. We set out to explore the potential for and relative healthcare costs of earlier hospital discharge through switch to oral antibiotic therapy (linezolid or rifampicin and doxycycline) or continuation of IV therapy (teicoplanin) via an outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy (OPAT) service. Over 16 months, 173 patients were retrospectively identified with MRSA SSTI, of whom 82.8 % were treated with IV therapy. Thirty-seven patients were potentially suitable for earlier discharge with outpatient therapy. The model assumed 3 days of inpatient management and a maximum of 14 days of outpatient therapy. For the status quo, where patients received only inpatient care with IV therapy, hospital costs were calculated at A 12,316 pound per patient, with 97 % of costs accounted for by direct bed day costs.
Later, this pattern reversed. Duration increased linearly for those initially asked to suppress but was short and stable for those who initially monitored. Accounting for change over time and means of measuring recurrence (frequency
vs. duration) may help elucidate past mixed findings, and improve thought suppression research methodology. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“In congenital Chuvash polycythemia (CP). VHLR200W homozygosity leads to elevated hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) levels at normoxia. CP is often treated by phlebotomy resulting in iron deficiency, permitting us to examine the separate and synergistic Torin 2 mw effects of iron deficiency and HIF signaling on gene expression. We compared peripheral blood mononuclear cell gene expression profiles of eight VHLR200W homozygotes with 17 wildtype individuals with normal iron status and found 812 up-regulated and 2120 down-regulated genes at false discovery rate of 0.05. Among differential genes we identified PFTα three major gene regulation modules involving induction of innate immune responses, alteration of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, and down-regulation of cell proliferation, stress-induced
apoptosis and T-cell activation. These observations suggest molecular mechanisms for previous observations in CP of lower blood sugar without increased insulin and low oncogenic potential. Studies including 16 additional VHLR200W homozygotes with low ferritin indicated that iron deficiency enhanced the induction effect of VHLR200W for 50 genes including hemoglobin
synthesis loci but suppressed the effect for 107 genes enriched for HIF-2 targets. This pattern is consistent with potentiation of HIF-1 alpha protein stability by iron deficiency but a trend for down-regulation of HIF-2 alpha translation by iron deficiency overriding an increase in HIF-2 alpha protein stability. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Background: Female cancer, especially breast and gynecologic cancers are considered multistage disease, highly influenced by risk and protective factors and/or screening preventive modalities. Consequences of all these factors result in the trend of change over time. Methods: Selisistat inhibitor In this comparative study, based on data of national cancer registry of Iran 2004 published by Iranian Ministry of Health, age – standard incidence rate (ASR) according to the world population was calculated in all reported gynecologic and breast cancers. Source of all subjects are pathologic based. In the next step, the calculated ASR of Iran and those of the other countries in 2004 were compared to GLOBOCAN ASR reports of 2008. Results: In Iran ASR of breast cancer 2004 (24.93) changed to 18.4 in 2008. Ovarian cancer ASR of 2004, 3.07 was 3.1 in 2008. Endometrial cancer ASR in 2004 (2.29) was 1.7 in 2008. Cervical cancer ASR of 1.71 in 2004 was 2.2 in 2008. Conclusions: In Iran incidence trend of breast and endometrium are decreasing in the same direction of USA and Australia.
Knowledge of the advantages, limitations, and clinical role of CB-839 mouse each equation
will facilitate their safe and effective use in drug dosing.”
“Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection leading to cardiopulmonary failure (CPF) is rare, but usually fatal. In such cases, intensive cardiorespiratory support is essential for survival. In this study, we report our experience in the treatment of EV71-related CPF with extracorporeal life support (ECLS).\n\nThis was a retrospective study of a total of 13 children, aged 16 +/- A 10 months, with EV71-related hemodynamically unstable CPF, which was refractory to conventional treatments, who were rescued by transsternal ECLS from 2000 to 2008. The clinical manifestations and outcomes of the 13 children (present cohort) were compared with those of 10 children (past cohort) who had EV71-related CPF without ECLS between 1998 and 2000.\n\nAmong these 13 patients, 10 were successfully weaned off ECLS and survived. The myocardial recovery time was 71 +/- A 28 (median, 69) h, and the ECLS duration was 93 +/- A 33 (median, 93) h. Six surviving patients had a good neurological outcome at hospital discharge. All surviving patients had some neurological sequelae but showed improvement at follow-up, including dysphagia in nine, central hypoventilation in seven, limb weakness in six and seizure
in three. The present cohort had better neurological outcomes (46 vs. 0%, P = 0.005) and a higher survival rate (77 vs. 30%, P = 0.024) than the past cohort, respectively.\n\nPatients with EV71-related CPF supported by ECLS had a higher survival rate and fewer neurological
sequelae than those who only see more received conventional treatments. ECLS is an effective alternative method for treatment of children with refractory EV71-related CPF.”
“Phytoremediation is a plant based, cost effective technology to detoxify or stabilise selleck chemicals llc contaminated soils. Fast growing, high biomass, perennial plants may be used not only in phytoremediation but also in energy production. Szarvasi-1 energy grass (Elymus elongatus subsp. ponticus cv. Szarvasi-1), a good candidate for this combined application, was grown in nutrient solution in order to assess its Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn accumulation and tolerance. Its shoot metal accumulation showed the order Pb < Ni < Cu similar to Cd < Zn. In parallel with this, Pb and Ni had no or very little influence on the growth, dry matter content, chlorophyll concentration and transpiration of the plants. Cu and Cd treatment resulted in significant decreases in all these parameters that can be attributed to Fe plaque formation in the roots suggested by markedly increased Fe and Cu accumulation. This came together with decreased shoot and root Mn concentrations in both treatments while shoot Cu and Zn concentrations decreased under Cd and Cu exposure, respectively. Zn treatment had no effect or even slightly stimulated the plants.
Longitudinal studies assessing the relationship between DAIs and single instruments and radiographic progression were included. The results were grouped based on the means of measurement (baseline vs time integrated) and analysis (univariable or multivariable).
Results. Fifty-seven studies from 1232 hits were included. All published studies that assessed the relationship between any time-integrated DAI including joint count and radiographic progression reached a statistically significant association. Among the single instruments, only swollen joint count and ESR were associated with radiographic progression, while no significant association was found for tender joint count. Data with respect to CRP are conflicting. Data on patient’s global health, pain assessment and evaluator’s
global assessment are limited https://www.selleckchem.com/products/azd9291.html and do not support a positive association with progression of joint damage. Conclusion. Published data indicate that all DAIs that include swollen joints are related to radiographic progression while, of the individual components, only swollen joints and acute phase reactants are associated. Therefore composite DAIs buy Bafilomycin A1 are the optimal tool to monitor disease activity in patients with RA.”
“Aim: The cerebral state index (CSI) was recently introduced as an electroencephalographic monitor for measuring the depth of anesthesia. We compared the performance of CSI to the bispectral index (BIS) as electroencephalographic measures of sevoflurane effect using two combined sigmoidal E-max models.\n\nMethods: Twenty adult patients scheduled for laparotomy were studied. After induction of general anesthesia, sevoflurane concentrations were progressively increased and then decreased over 70 min. An analysis of the BIS and CSI with the sevoflurane effect-site concentration was conducted using two combined sigmoidal E-max models.\n\nResults: The BIS and CSI decreased over the initial concentration
range of sevoflurane and then reached a plateau in most patients. A further increase in sevoflurane concentration produced a secondary plateau in the pharmacodynamic response. The CSI was more strongly correlated with effect-site sevoflurane concentration (R-2=0.95 +/- 0.04) than the BIS was (R-2=0.87 +/- 0.07) (P<0.05). The individual E-max and C-eff50 (effect-site VX-680 datasheet concentration associated with 50% decrease from baseline to plateau) values for the upper and lower plateaus were significantly greater for BIS (12.7 +/- 7.3, 1.6 +/- 0.4, and 4.2 +/- 0.5, respectively) than for CSI (3.4 +/- 2.2, 1.2 +/- 0.4, and 3.8 +/- 0.5, respectively) (P<0.05). The remaining pharmacodynamic parameters for the BIS and CSI were similar.\n\nConclusion: The overall performance of the BIS and CSI during sevoflurane anesthesia was similar despite major differences in their algorithms. However, the CSI was more consistent and more sensitive to changes in sevoflurane concentration, whereas the measured BIS seemed to respond faster.
Conversely, strains from marine sediments and more especially from intertidal mudflats 17DMAG price have not been extensively screened for the presence of new NRPS. In this study, for the first time, a collection of one hundred intertidal mudflat bacterial isolates (Marennes-Oleron Bay, France) was assessed for (1) the presence of NRPS genes by degenerated PCR targeting conserved adenylation domains and (2) for their production of antimicrobial molecules. (1) Bacteria with adenylation domains (14 strains) were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and grouped into Firmicutes (one strain) and Proteobacteria (13 strains). In silico
analysis of the NRPS amino acid sequences (n = 7) showed 41-58% ID with sequences found in the NCBI database. Three new putative adenylation domain signatures were found. (2) The culture supernatant of one of these strains, identified as a Bacillus, was shown to strongly inhibit the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, and Enterococcus faecalis. This study portends that the intertidal mudflat niche could be of interest for the discovery of new NRPS genes and antimicrobial producing strains.”
“Successful reconstruction of extensive anterior chest wall defect following major electrical burn represents a very challenging surgery.
Herein we report the first case using pedicled full-thickness abdominal OICR-9429 concentration flap combined with skin grafting to treat this injury with severe infection and exposure of pericardium and ribs in a Chinese patient.
Following the performance of chest debridement to remove necrotic and infected tissues and the injection of broad-spectrum antibiotics to reduce infection, a pedicled full-thickness abdominal flap was used to cover the exposed pericardium and ribs, and skin grafting from the right leg of the patient was done to cover the exposed vital tissues. The patient was followed up for a total of 35 years, and satisfactory cosmetic and functional outcomes were obtained without complications. This report provides an effective method for the surgeons who encounter similar cases where reconstruction of extensive anterior chest wall is required.”
“Ionova IA, Vasquez-Vivar J, Whitsett J, Herrnreiter A, Medhora M, Cooley BC, Pieper GM. Deficient BH4 production via VEGFR inhibitor de novo and salvage pathways regulates NO responses to cytokines in adult cardiac myocytes. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 295: H2178-H2187, 2008. First published October 3, 2008; doi: 10.1152/ajpheart.00748.2008.-Adult rat cardiac myocytes typically display a phenotypic response to cytokines manifested by low or no increases in nitric oxide (NO) production via inducible NO synthase (iNOS) that distinguishes them from other cell types. To better characterize this response, we examined the expression of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4)- synthesizing and arginine-utilizing genes in cytokine-stimulated adult cardiac myocytes. Intracellular BH4 and 7,8-dihydrobiopterin (BH2) and NO production were quantified.
“Postpartum hemorrhage is an important cause of maternal morbidity and mortality after delivery. Active management of postpartum hemorrhage by an uterotonic drug decreases the rate of postpartum hemorrhage. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of rectal misoprostol for prevention of postpartum hemorrhage. This double blind randomized clinical trial was performed on full term pregnant women candidate for vaginal delivery, referred to Zahedan Imam Ali Hospital
during 2008-2009. They were randomly divided into two groups of rectal misoprostol and oxytocin. The women in misoprostol group received 400 mu g rectal misoprostol after delivery and the women in oxytocin group received 3 IU oxytocin in 1 L ringer serum, LB-100 cell line HDAC inhibitors cancer intravenously. Rate of bleeding, need to any surgery interventions, rate of transfusion and changes in hemoglobin and hematocrite were compared between two groups. A total of 400 patients (200 cases in misoprostol group and 200 in oxytocin group) entered to the study. Rate of bleeding > 500 cc was significantly higher
in oxytocin group than misoprostol group (33% vs. 19%) (p = 0.005). Also, need to excessive oxytocin for management of postpartum hemorrhage was significantly lower in misoprostol group than oxytocin group (18% vs. 30%) (p = 0.003). Decrease in hematocrite was significantly more observed in oxytocin group than misoprostol group (mean decrease of hematocrite was 1.3 +/- 1.6 in misoprostol group and 1.6 +/- 2.2 in oxytocin group). Two groups were similar in terms of side-effects. Rectal misoprostol as an uterotonic drug can decrease postpartum hemorrhage and also can prevent from decrease of hemoglobin as compared to oxytocin.”
“We investigate the upconversion emission of CaWO4:Tm3+/Yb3+ polycrystals prepared by the high-temperature
solid-state method. The crystal structure of the polycrystals is characterized by means of x-ray diffraction. Under the excitation of a 980 nm continuous wave diode laser, the samples show intense blue upconversion emissions centered at 473 nm, selleck products corresponding to the (1)G(4)-> H-3(6) transition of Tm3+. The dependence of the upconversion emission intensity on the pump power of a laser diode is measured, and the results indicate that the two-photon and three-photon processes contribute simultaneously to the blue upconversion emissions. The possible multi-photon upconversion process and upconversion mechanisms are discussed.”
“The catalytic oxidative decomposition of 1,2-dichoroethane was examined over a series of Ce/Zr mixed oxides (CeO2, Ce0.8Zr0.2O2, Ce0.5Zr0.5O2, Ce0.15Zr0.85O2 and ZrO2) treated with a 1 M aqueous solution of H2SO4 or HNO3. After calcination at 550 degrees C, the doped samples were characterised by dynamic thermogravimetry. X-ray diffraction.