This might support an early, efficient elimination of bacteria wh

This might support an early, efficient elimination of bacteria while reducing inflammation-associated tissue damage. Secondly, ARA290 directly reduces cellular infection due to interference with bacterial invasion. Because the intracellular niche is regarded as a relevant reservoir for E. coli, this may confer protection against recurrence of the infection. Taken together, the combination of these effects

makes ARA290 a promising substance both to boost the immune response during acute UTI and to prevent recurrence of the infection. This work was supported by grants from the Swedish Research Council (56X-20356) and ALF Project Funding and Karolinska Institutet. “
“In the present study, we have found that intestinal flora strongly influence peritoneal neutrophilic inflammatory responses selleck to diverse stimuli, including pathogen-derived particles like zymosan and sterile irritant particles like crystals. When germ-free and flora-deficient (antibiotic-treated) mice are challenged with zymosan intraperitoneally, neutrophils are markedly impaired in their ability to extravasate from blood into the peritoneum. In contrast,

in these animals, neutrophils can extravasate in response to an intraperitoneal injection of the chemokine, macrophage inflammatory protein 2. Neutrophil recruitment upon inflammatory challenge requires stimulation by microbiota through a myeloid differentiation primary response gene (88) (MyD88) -dependent pathway. MyD88 signalling is crucial during the development of the immune system but depending upon the ligand it may be dispensable at the time of the actual inflammatory challenge. Furthermore, pre-treatment of flora-deficient mice with a purified MyD88-pathway agonist is sufficient to restore neutrophil migration. In summary, this study provides insight into the role of gut microbiota in influencing acute inflammation at sites outside the gastrointestinal tract. Rucaparib The large intestinal tract of humans and other vertebrates is inhabited by numerous and diverse bacterial populations. The extent of microbial colonization is such that the number of microbial cells outnumbers the total number of cells in the human body 10-fold.

The combined microbial gene set similarly exceeds the human gene complement about 150-fold.[1, 2] The intestinal flora plays a vital role in gut physiology. The mammalian digestive system is limited in its ability to produce all the enzymes that are required to metabolize the vast repertoire of energy substrates that are consumed and the gut flora complements the host’s digestive system in maximizing their utilization. The nutritive benefits of gut flora extend to carbohydrate fermentation and absorption, lipid storage and secretion of vitamins and amino acids and absorption of minerals.[3] Besides their role in digestion, intestinal flora contributes to intestinal epithelial cell growth and proliferation and development of mucosal immunity.

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