“Background and Objective\n\nPhotochemical pathogen inactivation technologies (PCT) for individual transfusion products act by inhibition of replication through irreversibly damaging nucleic acids. Concern on the collateral impact of PCT on the blood component’s integrity has caused reluctance to introduce this technology in routine practice. This work aims to uncover the mechanism of damage to plasma constituents by riboflavin pathogen reduction technology (RF-PRT).\n\nMethods\n\nActivity and antigen of plasma components were determined following RF-PRT in the presence or absence of dissolved molecular oxygen.\n\nResults\n\nEmploying
ADAMTS13 as a sentinel molecule in plasma, our data show that its activity and antigen are reduced by 23 +/- 8% and 29 +/- Selleckchem Proteasome inhibitor 9% (n=24), respectively, which corroborates with a mean decrease of 25% observed for other coagulation factors. Western blotting Pexidartinib order of ADAMTS13 shows decreased molecular integrity, with no obvious indication of additional proteolysis nor is riboflavin able to directly inhibit the enzyme.
However, physical removal of dissolved oxygen prior to RF-PRT protects ADAMTS13 as well as FVIII and fibrinogen from damage, indicating a direct role for reactive oxygen species. Redox dye measurements indicate that superoxide anions are specifically generated during RF-PRT. Protein carbonyl content as a marker of disseminated irreversible biomolecular damage was significantly increased (3 center dot 1 +/- 0 center dot 8 vs. 1 center dot 6 +/- 0 center dot 5nmol/mg protein) following RF-PRT, but not in the absence of dissolved molecular oxygen
(1 center dot 8 +/- 0 center dot 4nmol/mg).\n\nConclusions\n\nRF-PRT of single plasma units generates reactive oxygen species that adversely affect biomolecular integrity of Ricolinostat Epigenetics inhibitor relevant plasma constituents, a side-effect, which can be bypassed by applying hypoxic conditions during the pathogen inactivation process.”
“Droplet-based nucleation experiments reveal discrepancies in kinetic and thermodynamic factors. Here we examine how the chemical nature of the water-oil interface, and not the type of the device, used in different set-ups by three different groups impacts nucleation rate and explain discrepancies among lysozyme interfacial energies and pre-exponential factors encountered in the literature.”
“Current-voltage characteristics of discharge with a water-ceramic electrode were measured under various conditions. The existence of the incandescent ceramic component in the discharge gap reduces the discharge voltage and sustains the discharge in a low current range. Discharge voltage reduction is more notable in the case that the water is positively biased. The closer to the water surface the incandescent ceramic component is positioned, the more notable its effects become.