e. energy, carbohydrates, fluids and caffeine) and performance
(i.e. completed distance or mean cycling speed) during the event. The strongest relationship was found between total fluid intakes and cycling speed. This fact can add support to the wide scientific evidence indicating that in hot environmental conditions, such as in the current event, a careful hydration strategy is one of the key fundamentals to maintain the athletic performance [16, 39]. Strength and limitations of the present study A major strength of this study is the careful nutritional analysis which was carried Eltanexor datasheet out in a community and setting where little information has been forthcoming. We were Bafilomycin A1 able to weigh and record all foods and fluids ingested by the eight athletes in a real competition. This methodology
is not easy to apply in the field, but reports more reliable information compared to questionnaires or dietary surveys which have been employed in other previous investigations [9, 10, 43, 44]. However, we should also acknowledge some limitations and caveats in this study. Perhaps, the main limitation was the sample size, which was small to analyze the relationship between nutritional and performance variables. In addition, although the relationship between heart rate-VO2 has been shown to be an acceptable measure for estimating energy expenditure during non-steady state [45, 46], it should be admitted that this methodology can be affected by several physiological and environmental factors such as dehydration and temperature . CDK activation Currently, doubly-labeled water is considered to be the gold standard method for estimating energy
expenditure in free living humans, which can also be used under field conditions, but it is an expensive method. On the contrary, the heart rate-VO2 regression equation is a feasible and reasonably priced method which has been employed in other previous investigations [43, 48, 49]. Conclusions Cycling ultra-endurance events lasting 24-hour in a team relay format elicits several Axenfeld syndrome bouts of exercise, with limited recovery between them, at high exercise intensity (> 75% of VO2max). This pattern of exercise stimulates an important consumption of carbohydrates to supply energy for muscle contraction. This study shows that these ultra-endurance athletes were able to consume large amount of carbohydrates in a field competition which was in accordance with data obtained in laboratory studies in order to optimize carbohydrate oxidation during exercise. However, despite of this fact we found an increased energy deficit throughout the race. This finding indicates that the nutritional pattern followed the days before to the competition could be even, or at least, as important that the dietary strategy during the event.