Streptococcus salivarius DSM 23307, characterized in this study, is sensitive to the main antibiotics used for the treatment of URTIs, does not possess dangerous enzymatic reactions, as demonstrated by its metabolic profile, and lacks the main streptococcal virulence genes, that is, sagA, smeZ-2, and speB. All this is further proof of its virtuous nature. Moreover, a fundamental property of this strain is its strong BLIS activity against S. pneumoniae including virulent and multidrug resistance strains such as the most diffused serotypes circulating in our country
involved in severe infections in children and adults (Resti et al., 2010; Ansaldi et al., 2011); furthermore, it does not interfere with other S. salivarius strains. The BLIS activity of S. salivarius DSM 23307
is not associated with typical streptococcal bacteriocin genes such as salA, sboB, srtA, scnA, and sivA as demonstrated by PCR experiments, selleck compound suggesting the presence of variant or different antimicrobial peptide genes. These molecular data correlated with its unusual inhibitory spectrum primarily oriented SB203580 ic50 versus S. pneumoniae and only in particular growth conditions, that is, in TSYCa versus S. pyogenes. The strong in vitro capacity to inhibit S. pneumoniae resembles the BLIS activity of the nisin inhibitory spectrum (Goldstein et al., 1998), even if the Clomifene presence of this gene was excluded. Another essential characteristic of strains for use as bacterial replacement therapy is their capability to adhere to host tissues: the cells of S. salivarius DSM 23307 remained attached to the HEp-2 monolayer demonstrating a good adherence capacity. In conclusion, in this study, we identified one strain as a potential oral probiotic, possessing desirable characteristics for bacteria-therapy: S. salivarius DSM 23307 possesses a strong activity against S. pneumoniae and is harmless to other S. salivarius strains, it is non-pathogenic for the host as demonstrated by safety assessment and
it efficiently adheres to human larynx cells. Further studies on S. salivarius DSM 23307 are ongoing both to completely characterize the antimicrobial peptides and to confirm its probiotic use in humans. This work was supported in part by DMG Italia s.r.l. and by research funding of S.S. and M.S. The authors thank Antony Bridgewood for the language revision. “
“Programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) blockade is accepted as a novel strategy for the reactivation of exhausted T cells that express programmed death-1 (PD-1). However, the mechanism of PD-L1-mediated inhibitory signalling after PD-L1 cross-linking by anti-PD-L1 monoclonal antibody (mAb) or PD-1–immunogloblin fusion protein (PD-1-Ig) is still unknown, although it may induce cell death of PD-L1+ cells required for regular immune reactions.