The prevalence of endemic nephropathy and its associated urotheli

The prevalence of endemic nephropathy and its associated urothelial cancers is predicted to decrease over

PFTα price time.”
“Fresh vegetables have been recurrently associated with salmonellosis outbreaks, and Salmonella contamination of retail produce has been correlated positively with the presence of soft rot disease. We observed that population sizes of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium SL1344 increased 56-fold when inoculated alone onto cilantro leaves, versus 2,884-fold when coinoculated with Dickeya dadantii, a prevalent pathogen that macerates plant tissue. A similar trend in S. enterica populations was observed for soft-rotted lettuce leaves. Transcriptome analysis of S. enterica cells that colonized D. dadantii-infected lettuce and cilantro leaves revealed a clear shift toward anaerobic metabolism and catabolism of substrates that are available due to the degradation of plant cells by the pectinolytic pathogen. Twenty-nine percent of the genes that were upregulated in cilantro macerates were also previously observed to have increased expression levels in the chicken intestine. Furthermore, multiple genes induced in

soft rot lesions are also involved in the colonization of mouse, pig, and bovine models of host infection. Among those genes, the operons for ethanolamine and propanediol utilization as well as for the synthesis of cobalamin, a cofactor in these pathways, were the most highly upregulated genes in lettuce and cilantro lesions. In S. Typhimurium strain LT2, population sizes of mutants deficient learn more in propanediol utilization or cobalamin synthesis were 10- and 3-fold lower, respectively, than those of the wild-type strain in macerated cilantro (P < 0.0002); in strain SL1344, such mutants behaved similarly to the parental strain. Anaerobic conditions and the utilization of nutrients in macerated plant tissue that are also present in the animal intestine indicate a niche overlap that may explain the high level of adaptation of S. enterica to soft rot lesions, a common postharvest plant disease.”
“Increased attention has been paid to the role of Selleckchem CP-868596 oxidant/antioxidant imbalance in neurodegenerative process and pharmaceutical neuroprotective

interventions. Food-derived compound luteolin possesses multitarget actions including reactive oxygen species (ROS)-scavenging activity in cultured human endothelial cells or permanent immature rat oligodendrocytes. This study aims to elucidate whether luteolin has a neuroprotective tendency toward ROS-insulted neural cells. The present results showed that luteolin, isolated from the ripe seed of Perilla frutescens (L.) Britt., markedly reversed hydrogen peroxide-induced cytotoxicity in primary culture cortical neurons but not in cultured human neuroblastoma cells. Upon the ROS-insulted primary neurons, luteolin concentration-dependently enhanced neuronal cell survival with efficacy higher than and potency similar to vitamin E.

Response rates and time to relapse vary significantly


Response rates and time to relapse vary significantly

among treated individuals. The objective of this study was to monitor the response of seropositive and seronegative RA patients MLN4924 to rituximab and correlate relapse with B-cell markers in the two groups.\n\nMethods: Seventeen RA patients (eight seropositive for rheumatoid factor [RF+] and nine seronegative [RF-]) were treated with two cycles of rituximab. After treatment, all patients were re-evaluated at the outpatient clinic, and rituximab was readministered when disease relapse was confirmed by clinical-laboratory measures (Disease Activity Score [DAS]-28). CD20+ cells and CD20 receptor expression levels were estimated at initiation, relapse, and re-evaluation timepoints, and were compared between the two groups.\n\nResults: Seropositive patients responded favorably to treatment compared with the seronegative group. The mean time to relapse was 337.5 +/- 127.0 days for the RF+ patients versus 233.3 +/- 59.6 days for the RF-patients (p = 0.043), despite more aggressive concomitant treatment in the seronegative group. The DAS28 decrease 3 months

after treatment was 1.695 +/- 1.076 in seropositive patients versus 0.94 +/- 1.62 in seronegative patients. At relapse, RSL3 clinical trial CD20 receptor expression (molecules/cell) was higher in RF+ patients than in their RF- counterparts, despite a significantly lower percentage of CD20+ cells.\n\nConclusion: Rituximab treatment is efficient in both seropositive and seronegative RA. However, seropositive RA patients tend to respond favorably compared with seronegative patients. The differential CD20 receptor expression

in the two groups at relapse potentially suggests a different pathogenetic mechanism of relapse and merits further investigation.”
“Trehalose, mTOR inhibitor a nonreducing disaccharide of glucose, is synthesized as a stress response factor when cells are exposed to stressful conditions. In the cornea, oxidative stress plays the key role in the development of acute corneal inflammatory response to UVB rays, photokeratitis. We found previously that trehalose reduced UVB-induced oxidative effects on the formation of cytotoxic peroxynitrite, apoptotic corneal epithelial cell death and changes in corneal optics. The aim of the present study was to examine whether trehalose might inhibit UVB-mediated proinflammatory cytokine and matrix metalloproteinase induction and the development of an antioxidant/pro-oxidant imbalance in the corneal epithelium, changes found previously to be strongly involved in the acute corneal UVB-induced inflammation. The expression of heat shock protein 70 as a potential biomarker for corneal UVB-induced damage was also examined.\n\nThe corneas of New Zealand white rabbits were irradiated with UVB rays, 312 nm, daily dose of 0.5 J/cm(2) for 4 days.

For establishing standards for Mibyeong, clear definition and int

For establishing standards for Mibyeong, clear definition and international academic studies were necessary.\n\nConclusions: Consensus was achieved on the concept, the need for

subtyping, diagnosis, case scenarios and policy setting but not on areas such as study design, and population for further study. These results suggest that rigorous studies are needed to establish clear definition of Mibyeong for any future research. (C) 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.”
“Cellulase production studies have been carried out using the fungal strain Trichoderma DZNeP Epigenetics inhibitor reesei NCIM 992 by using three different lignocellulosic materials by solid state fermentation (SSF). The effect of basic fermentation parameters (pH, temperature,

moisture content, particle size of substrate and moistening agent) on enzyme production was studied. Maximum cellulase production was 2.63 U ml(-1) using wheat bran as substrate. The optimal conditions for cellulase production for wheat bran were found to be: initial moisture content-70%, initial medium pH-5.0, temperature-30 degrees C, moistening agents (MSS) and particle size of substrate (500 mu m). The optimal incubation time for production was six days. Results selleckchem indicate the scope for further optimization of the production conditions to obtain higher cellulase titres using the strain under SSF.”
“Background: Color and motion serve as the prime examples of segregated processing in the visual brain, giving rise to the question how color-motion conjunctions are represented. This problem is also known as the “binding problem.”\n\nResults: Human volunteers viewed visual displays containing colored dots rotating around the center. The dots could be red or green and rotate clockwise or counterclockwise, leading to four possible TPCA-1 molecular weight stimulus displays.

Superimposed pairs of such stimuli provided two additional displays, each containing both colors and both directions of motion but differing in their feature conjunctions. We applied multivariate classifiers to voxel-activation patterns obtained while subjects viewed such displays. Our analyses confirm the presence of directional-motion information across visual cortex and provide evidence of hue coding in all early visual areas except V5/MT(+). Within each cortical area, information on color and motion appeared to be coded in distinct sets of voxels. Furthermore, our results demonstrate the explicit representation of feature conjunctions in the primary visual cortex and beyond.\n\nConclusions: The results show that conjunctions can be decoded from spatial activation patterns already in V1, indicating an explicit coding of conjunctions at early stages of visual processing. Our findings raise the possibility that the solution of what has been taken as the prime example of the binding problem engages neural mechanisms as early as V1.

Also, even at greater readout noise levels, for a large enough n’

Also, even at greater readout noise levels, for a large enough n’, intensity weighted centroiding is enough to sense the aberrations with high accuracy. It is shown that the wavefront sensing accuracy depends on the size of the spots and bit resolution of the camera. Conclusion Five different centroid detection methods Daporinad concentration used in a HS in the presence of photon noise and readout noise were analysed in the context of sensing ocular aberrations of myopic subjects and identify cases under which each of these methods is appropriate.”
“Purpose: Currently, little is known regarding use of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) in health education applications.

Therefore, this review sought to examine the scope of work that has been conducted regarding the application of the ICF in health education. Methods: A review of the current literature related to use of the ICF in health education programs was conducted. Twelve electronic databases were searched in accordance with a search protocol developed by a health sciences librarian. In total, 17 878 records were reviewed, and 18 articles met the criteria

for inclusion in this review. Results: Current evidence regarding use of the ICF in healthcare education revealed that program and participant properties can be essential facilitators or barriers to successful education programs. In addition, gaps in comprehensive outcome measurement were PKC412 revealed as areas for future

attention. Educational applications of the ICF are very much a work in progress as might be expected given the ICF’s existence for only a little over AL3818 a decade. Conclusions: To advance use of the ICF in education, it is important to incorporate the measurement of both knowledge acquisition and behavior change related to ICF-based programs. Ultimately, widespread implementation of the ICF represents not only a substantial opportunity but also poses a significant challenge.”
“Aim: Hyperglycemia is one of the major risk factors leading to vascular complications in clinical diabetes mellitus. Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE), an antioxidant herbal medicine, possesses anti-inflammatory effects. We examined whether GBE can reduce high glucose-induced endothelial adhesiveness to monocytes, an in vitro sign mimicking in vivo early atherogenesis, through selective regulation of heme oxygenase (HO)-1 expression.\n\nMethods: Human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) were cultured with normal glucose or high glucose (25 mM) for 4 days and subsequently combined with GBE (EGb761, Dr. Willmar Schwabe, Karlsruhe, Germany) treatment in the last 18 h of the 4-day period. The endothelial reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, adhesion molecule expression and the adhesiveness to monocytes were examined. The specific signal pathways such as HO-1 were also examined.

Interestingly, the cleavage rate for EM2S is similar to 100-fold

Interestingly, the cleavage rate for EM2S is similar to 100-fold slower than that displayed by EM4S. Collectively, these data indicate that for the PvuII system, catalysis involving one metal ion per active site can indeed occur, but that a more efficient two-metal ion mechanism can be operative under saturating metal ion (in vitro) conditions.”
“Background Pulmonary valve replacement (PVR) after repair of tetralogy of Fallot is commonly required and is burdensome. Detailed anatomic and physiologic characteristics of survivors

free from late PVR and with good exercise capacity are not well described in a literature focusing on the p38 MAPK assay indications for PVR.\n\nMethods and Results Survival and freedom from PVR were tracked in 1085 consecutive patients receiving standard tetralogy of Fallot repair in a single institution from 1964 to 2009. Of 152 total deaths, 100 occurred within the first postoperative year. Surviving patients between 10 and 50 years of age had an annual risk of death of 4 (confidence limit, 2.8-5.4) times that of normal contemporaries. To date, 189 patients have undergone secondary PVR at mean age of 2013 years (36% of those alive at 40 years of age). A random sample of 50 survivors (age, 4-57 years) free from PVR underwent PD0325901 cardiovascular magnetic resonance, echocardiography, and exercise testing. These patients had mildly dilated

right ventricles (right ventricular end-diastolic volume=101 +/- 26 mL/m(2)) with good systolic function (right ventricular ejection fraction=59 +/- 7%). Most had exercise capacity within normal range (z peak (v) over doto(2)=-0.91 +/- 1.3; z<(v) over dotco(2)=0.20 +/- 1.5). In patients >35 years of age with

normal exercise capacity, there was mild residual right ventricular outflow tract obstruction (mean gradient, Akt inhibitor 24 +/- 13 mmHg), pulmonary annulus diameters <0.5z, and unobstructed branch pulmonary arteries.\n\nConclusions An important proportion of patients require PVR late after tetralogy of Fallot repair. Patients surviving to 35 years of age without PVR and with a normal exercise capacity may have had a definitive primary repair; their right ventricular outflow tracts are characterized by mild residual obstruction and pulmonary annulus diameter <0.5z.”
“Factors that regulate the induction of apoptosis of tumour cells are potential candidates for therapeutic intervention for the majority of cancers. Studying modifiers of apoptotic responses, such as members of the tumour necrosis factor receptor superfamily, may give clues as to how induction of apoptosis in tumours could be maximized to enhancethe benefit of treatment regimes. Tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a promising anti-tumour molecule since its activity is specific for tumour cell populations. TRAIL binds to death receptors, inducing apoptosis in susceptible cells.

All inter-group differences were statistically significant (P sm

All inter-group differences were statistically significant (P smaller than 0.05). Conclusion: The EORTC QLQ-LC43 is a reliable and valid instrument in patients with lung cancer and is appropriate for measuring the QoL of Akt inhibitor Chinese patients. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”

determine relative concentrations of selected major brain tissue metabolites and their ratios and lobar variations by use of 3-T proton (hydrogen 1 [H-1]) magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) of the brain of healthy dogs. Animals-10 healthy Beagles. Procedures-3-T H-1 MRS at echo times of 144 and 35 milliseconds was performed on 5 transverse slices and 1 sagittal slice of representative brain lobe regions. Intravoxel parenchyma was classified as white matter, gray matter, or mixed (gray and white) and analyzed for relative concentrations

(in arbitrary units) of N-acetylaspartate (NAA), choline, and creatine (ie, height at position of peak on MRS graph) as well as their ratios (NAA-to-choline, NAA-to-creatine, and choline-to-creatine ratios). Peak heights for metabolites were compared between echo times. Peak heights for metabolites and their ratios were correlated and evaluated among matter types. Yield was calculated as interpretable voxels divided by available lobar voxels. Results-Reference ranges of the metabolite concentration ratios were determined at an echo time of 35 milliseconds (NAA-to-choline ratio, 1.055 to 2.224; NAA-to-creatine ratio, 1.103 to 2.161; choline-to-creatine ratio, 0.759 to 1.332) and 144 milliseconds (NAA-to-choline this website ratio, 0.687 to 1.788; NAA-to-creatine GANT61 molecular weight ratio, 0.984 to 2.044; choline-to-creatine ratio, 0.828

to 1.853). Metabolite concentration ratios were greater in white matter than in gray matter. Voxel yields ranged from 43% for the temporal lobe to 100% for the thalamus. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Metabolite concentrations and concentration ratios determined with 3-T H-1 MRS were not identical to those in humans and were determined for clinical and research investigations of canine brain disease.”
“Mucosal-associated invariant T lymphocytes (MAIT lymphocytes) are characterized by two evolutionarily conserved features: an invariant T cell antigen receptor (TCR)alpha-chain and restriction by the major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-related protein MR1. Here we show that MAIT cells were activated by cells infected with various strains of bacteria and yeast, but not cells infected with virus, in both humans and mice. This activation required cognate interaction between the invariant TCR and MR1, which can present a bacteria-derived ligand. In humans, we observed considerably fewer MAIT cells in blood from patients with bacterial infections such as tuberculosis. In the mouse, MAIT cells protected against infection by Mycobacterium abscessus or Escherichia coli.

05) The expression of TLR4 at each time point in the control gro

05). The expression of TLR4 at each time point in the control group was relatively low. Rats in LY2090314 in vivo the modeling

group had the high expression of TLR4 in kidney’s glomerular basement membrane, proximal convoluted tubule and renal interstitial area since 2 w, with the significant difference compared to the control group (P<0.05). The expression in rats of the modeling group was higher than the one of the control group since the 2nd week. As the time flied, its expression increased, with the statistically significant difference between two groups (P<0.05). There was certain correlation between the protein expression of TLR4 and the increased serum titer of 24-hour urine protein excretion, serum creatinine, CRP and TNF-alpha. Conclusions: TLR4 may activate the immuno-inflammatory reactions to play a

role in the occurrence and development of the diabetic nephropathy.”
“Objective To assess the determinants of patients’ (PTGL) and physicians’ (MDGL) global assessment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) activity and factors associated with discordance among them.\n\nMethods. A total of 7,028 patients in the Quantitative Standard Monitoring of Patients with RA study had PTGL and MDGL assessed at the same clinic visit on a 0-10-cm visual check details analog scale (VAS). Three patient groups were defined: concordant rating group (PTGL and MDGL within >= 2 cm), higher patient rating group (PTGL exceeding MDGL by > 2 cm), and lower patient rating group (PTGL less than MDGL by > 2 cm). Multivariable regression analysis was used to identify determinants of PTGL and MDGL and their discordance.\n\nResults. The mean +/- SD VAS scores for PTGL and MDGL were 4.01 +/- 2.70 and 2.91 +/- 2.37, respectively. Pain was overwhelmingly the single most important determinant of PTGL, followed DMH1 mouse by fatigue. In contrast, MDGL was most influenced by swollen joint count (SJC), followed by erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and tender joint count (TJC). A total of 4,454 (63.4%), 2,106 (30%), and 468 (6.6%) patients were in the concordant, higher,

and lower patient rating groups, respectively. Odds of higher patient rating increased with higher pain, fatigue, psychological distress, age, and morning stiffness, and decreased with higher SJC, TJC, and ESR. Lower patient rating odds increased with higher SJC, TJC, and ESR, and decreased with lower fatigue levels.\n\nConclusion. Nearly 36% of patients had discordance in RA activity assessment from their physicians. Sensitivity to the “disease experience” of patients, particularly pain and fatigue, is warranted for effective care of RA.”
“Cabergoline, an ergot-derived dopamine receptor agonist, is used widely in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease (PD) and hyperprolactinemia, but may cause heart valve fibrosis, retraction, and clinically significant regurgitation in PD patients.

Ten mild (FAPm), 10 severe (FAPs) autonomic dysfunction FAP p

\n\nTen mild (FAPm), 10 severe (FAPs) autonomic dysfunction FAP patients, and Selleckchem Savolitinib 15 healthy controls were monitored in supine and sitting positions for arterial blood pressure (ABP) and heart rate (HR) with arterial volume clamping, and for blood flow velocity (BFV) in posterior (PCA) and contralateral middle cerebral arteries (MCA) with transcranial Doppler. Analysis included resting BFV, cerebrovascular resistance parameters (cerebrovascular resistance index, CVRi; resistance area product, RAP; and critical closing pressure, CrCP), and neurovascular coupling through visually evoked BFV responses in PCA (gain, rate time, attenuation, and natural frequency).\n\nIn

non-stimulation conditions, in each position, there were no significant differences between the groups, regarding HR, BP, resting BFV, and vascular resistance parameters. Sitting ABP was higher than in supine in the three groups, although only significantly in controls. Mean BFV was lower in sitting in all the groups, lacking statistical significance only in FAPs PCA. selleck screening library CVRi and CrCP increased with sitting in all the groups, while RAP increased in controls but decreased in FAPm and FAPs. In visual stimulation conditions, FAPs comparing to controls had a significant decrease of natural frequency, in supine and sitting, and of rate time and gain

in sitting position.\n\nThese results demonstrate that cerebrovascular regulation is affected in FAP subjects with AF, and that it worsens with orthostasis.”
“Objective: To assess the relation between XRCC3 Thr241Met polymorphism and lung cancer susceptibility of populations in East Asia. Methods: Related studies of XRCC3 Thr241Met polymorphism and lung cancer susceptibility of populations in East Asia were collected through searching the Pubmed, Embase Library, SPRINGER, CNKI and CSSCI. Results: According to the entry criteria, there were 8 case-control studies in the assessing 5),stem and there were 6 321 study cases, including

3 215 patients with lung cancer and 3 106 cases without cancers. Meta analysis results showed the combined OR value of the ratio of genotype Thr/Met+Met/Met and Thr/Thr was 1.03 (95%CI: INCB024360 ic50 0.89-1.20) (P > 0.05). Conclusions: XRCC3 Thr241Met polymorphism may not related to lung cancer susceptibility of populations in East Asia. Allele 241Met did not increase the risk of lung cancer.”
“A novel high-throughput label-free resonant waveguide grating (RWG) imager biosensor, the Epic (R) BenchTop (BT), was utilized to determine the dependence of cell spreading kinetics on the average surface density (v(RGD)) of integrin ligand RGD-motifs. v(RGD) was tuned over four orders of magnitude by co-adsorbing the biologically inactive PLL-g-PEG and the RGD-functionalized PLL-g-PEG-RGD synthetic copolymers from their mixed solutions onto the sensor surface.

05) Translational motion increased significantly in high grade o

05). Translational motion increased significantly in high grade of disc and facet joint (except grade V disc and grade 4 facet joint) and with LFH in L1-L5 (P < 0.05). Angular motion significantly decreased in grade V disc, grade 4 ISL, and without LFH in L1-L5 (P < 0.05). According to muscle fatty degeneration,

translational and angular motions were not significantly changed.\n\nConclusion. Our results support that facet joint degeneration is followed by disc degeneration according to age. Increased translational movements of the lumbar segments occurred in severe disc degeneration accompanied by facet joint degeneration or the presence of LFH even if the movements were stabilized in the advanced status. Therefore, the current status of the intervertebral discs, facet joints, and ligamentum flavum should be taken into consideration when evaluating stability within the lumbar spine.”
“Objective: To analyze the influence C59 Wnt molecular weight of stapes prosthesis diameter on postoperative hearing results Napabucasin in vitro after stapedotomy without interposition in otosclerotic patients.\n\nData Sources: PubMed search from 1970 to 2009 using the key words stapedotomy or stapedectomy or otosclerosis or stapesplasty.\n\nStudy Selection: Inclusion criteria to select articles and patient groups for meta-analysis

and statistical analyses were as follows: otosclerosis as diagnosis, clear description of technique and prosthesis size, calibrated stapedotomy,

and complete report of functional results.\n\nData Extraction: Five controlled studies were found analyzing the influence Selleck Stem Cell Compound Library of prosthesis diameter and reporting the results in a comparable way for meta-analysis (n = 590). Sixty-two studies not analyzing the influence of prosthesis diameter contained comparable subgroups with a total of 9,536 cases. These cases were pooled according to their diameter (0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, and 0.8 mm). The results of air conduction, bone conduction, air-bone gap (ABG), and success rate (closure of the ABG within 10 dB as percentage of the total cases) for all groups and frequency-specific ABG results were gathered. Furthermore, 12 clinical and experimental studies were reviewed that did not contribute to the statistical analysis.\n\nData Synthesis: A meta-analysis performed for success rate of the 5 controlled studies showed favorable results for 0.6-mm over 0.4-mm prostheses (success rate, 67% versus 58%, p = 0.05). In the statistical analysis of the pooled data, the 0.6-mm prosthesis showed better results compared with 0.4 mm (p G 0.001) in the postoperative air conduction threshold (29 dB versus 35 dB), postoperative ABG (7 dB versus 11 dB), ABG improvement (25 dB versus 21 dB), and success rate (81.1% versus 75.1%). The frequency-specific analysis of the postoperative ABG showed no advantage for the small prosthesis in the high frequencies.

The hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) is responsive to h

The hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) is responsive to hypoxic stress and also contains neurons that express NMDA receptors and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS). We tested the hypothesis that extended (35 d) CIH results in a decrease in the surface/synaptic availability of the essential NMDA NR1 subunit in nNOS-containing neurons and NMDA-induced NO production in the PVN of

mice. As compared with controls, the 35 d CIH-exposed mice showed a significant increase in blood pressure and an increased density of NR1 immunogold particles located in the cytoplasm of nNOS-containing dendrites. Neither of these between-group differences was seen after 14 d, even though there was already a reduction GW4869 datasheet in the NR1 plasmalemmal density at this time point. Patch-clamp recording of PVN neurons in slices showed a significant reduction in NMDA currents after either 14 or 35 d exposure

to CIH compared with sham controls. In contrast, NO production, as measured by the NO-sensitive fluorescent dye 4-amino-5-methylamino-2′,7′-difluorofluorescein, was suppressed only in the 35 d CIH group. We conclude that CIH produces a reduction in the surface/synaptic targeting of NR1 in nNOS neurons and decreases NMDA receptor-mediated currents in the PVN before the emergence of hypertension, the development of which may be enabled by Fosbretabulin suppression of NO signaling in this brain region.”
“Phosphatase and tensin homolog on chromosome ten (PTEN) is

a tumor suppressor and an antagonist of the phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K) pathway. We identified a 576-amino acid translational variant of PTEN, termed PTEN-Long, that arises from an alternative translation start site 519 base pairs upstream of the ATG initiation sequence, adding 173 N-terminal amino acids to the normal PTEN open reading frame. selleck compound library PTEN-Long is a membrane-permeable lipid phosphatase that is secreted from cells and can enter other cells. As an exogenous agent, PTEN-Long antagonized PI3K signaling and induced tumor cell death in vitro and in vivo. By providing a means to restore a functional tumor-suppressor protein to tumor cells, PTEN-Long may have therapeutic uses.”
“Well defined, stable, one-point binding ruthenium complexes 1 and 2 selectively bind and activate alpha,beta-unsaturated carbonyl compounds for cycloaddition reactions. These mild Lewis acids catalyze asymmetric 1,4-addition reactions of aryl thiols to enones with product selectivities up to 87% ee. P-31 NMR experiments provide an insight into the intricate equilibria governing the reaction mechanism. The absolute configuration of the major products indicates enones to react in the syn-s-trans orientation. Models based on X-ray structures of the Ru complexes can be used to rationalize selectivity.”
“HYPK (Huntingtin Yeast Partner K) was originally identified by yeast two-hybrid assay as an interactor of Huntingtin, the protein mutated in Huntington’s disease.