The main outcome measure was the odds ratio (OR) for a change in

The main outcome measure was the odds ratio (OR) for a change in depression management. Change in management was defined as change in antidepressant drug prescription, dose, or referral.\n\nResults:\n\nControlling for the effects of potentially confounding factors, patients who showed an inadequate response in score change at the time of second assessment were nearly five times as likely to experience a subsequent change to treatment in comparison with those who showed an adequate response (OR 4.72, 95% confidence interval = 2.83 to 7.86).\n\nConclusion:\n\nGPs’

decisions to change treatment or selleck chemicals to make referrals following a second PHQ-9 appear to be in line with guidance from the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence for the monitoring of depression in primary care. Although the present study demonstrates an association between a lack of change in questionnaire scores and treatment changes, the extent to which scores influence

choice and whether they are associated with improvements in depression outcomes is an important area for further research.”
“Pelagic longline fisheries in the southwest Atlantic are a major conservation concern for several threatened seabirds, including four species of great albatrosses: wandering albatross (Diomedea exulans), Tristan albatross (Diomedea dabbenena), southern royal albatross (Diomedea epomophora) and northern royal albatross (Diomedea sanfordi). The aim of this study was to examine the spatial and temporal variation

in bycatch rates of these species, and Dibutyryl-cAMP Others inhibitor to identify the contributing environmental and operational factors. We used data collected by observers on board pelagic longliners in the Uruguayan fleet Ruboxistaurin in 2004-2011, and on Japanese vessels operating in Uruguay under an experimental fishing license in 2009-2011. Bycatch rates for northern and southern royal albatrosses were higher than expected based on previous reports, particularly over the shelf break. Wandering and Tristan albatrosses were caught predominantly in pelagic waters, where there are numerous fishing fleets from other flag states. Bycatch of great albatrosses was highest in April-November, with the peak for royal albatrosses in June-July, and for wandering and Tristan albatrosses in September-November. A range of vessel operational practices and habitat variables affected bycatch rates, among which setting time, moon phase, area and season are useful in terms of risk assessment, and in the development and improvement of conservation measures for these highly threatened species. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Stability and change in maternal intrusiveness during early childhood is rarely explored, particularly within African American families.

The factor most strongly related to the physicians’ use of geneti

The factor most strongly related to the physicians’ use of genetic testing was patients requests for breast (odds ratio = 12.65; 95% confidence interval 7.77-20.59) or colorectal cancer tests (odds ratio = 7.02; 95% confidence interval 3.61-13.64). A high level of

interest for specific training was reported by almost all physicians surveyed.\n\nConclusions. Targeted educational programs are needed to improve the expertise of physicians, and, ultimately, to enhance the appropriate use of genetic tests in clinical practice. (C) 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Background: click here In 1996, all colorectal surgery in the county of Vastmanland, Sweden, was centralized to the central District Hospital in Vasteras. A Colorectal Unit was established and modern surgical procedures were introduced. The aim of this study was to analyze the outcome for patients treated surgically for distal sigmoid colonic cancer before and after the centralization. Methods: Hospital records of all patients with distal sigmoid colonic cancer, treated between 19911995, group 1 (n

= 64), and 1996-2000, group 2 (n = 82), were studied retrospectively. Results: In find protocol group 2, there were fewer reoperations (n = 0) than in group 1 (n = 6; p = 0.005) and the postoperative mortality was lower; one in group 2 compared with five in group 1 (p = 0.047). The amount of lymph nodes examined were

higher and the length of distal surgical margin longer in group 2. Curatively treated patients in group 2 had better overall survival compared to group 1 (RR 0.56; 95% CI 0.34-0.93). Conclusion: Centralization of colorectal surgery resulted in an improvement of pathologic specimens and a decrease in postoperative reoperations and mortality in patients treated surgically for distal sigmoid colonic cancer. Moreover, the overall survival of curatively treated patients was improved. Copyright (C) 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“Breast reconstruction after mastectomy positively affects psychosocial well-being; however, the influence of reconstruction on cancer outcomes is unknown. The objective of our study was to compare survival in reconstructed versus nonreconstructed patients after mastectomy. All consecutive female patients diagnosed with invasive breast cancer and treated with mastectomy between 2002 and 2011 were identified from our single-institution database. All cancer operations were performed by two surgeons. Survival was calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method and compared using the log-rank test. To identify the effect of reconstruction on survival, a multivariate Cox regression analysis was performed. Of 474 patients treated, 340 (71.7%) underwent breast reconstruction. At a mean follow-up 3.3 years, reconstructed patients had a longer 5-year survival (91 vs 74%, P smaller than 0.001).

Evidence of heteroplasmy-two or more mitochondrial variants withi

Evidence of heteroplasmy-two or more mitochondrial variants within a single individual-has

now been documented in a number of invertebrates; however, when present, heteroplasmy usually occurs at low frequencies both within individuals and within populations. The implications of heteroplasmy may be far reaching, both to the individual in relation to its health and fitness, and when considering the evolutionary dynamics of populations. We present novel evidence for frequent mtDNA heteroplasmy in the bed bug, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae). Our findings show that heteroplasmy is common, with 5 of 29 (17%) populations screened exhibiting two mitochondrial variants in a similar to 1: 2 ratio within each individual. We hypothesize that the mechanism underlying heteroplasmy in bed selleck chemical bugs is paternal leakage because some haplotypes were shared among unrelated populations and no evidence for nuclear mitochondrial DNA sequences was detected.”
“The aim of the study was to analyze and compare the functional properties and the gene expression profile Neuronal Signaling inhibitor of regulatory T cells (Tregs) isolated

from cord blood (CB) units (n = 23) and from the peripheral blood (PB) of adult normal donors (n = 13). Tregs were purified from mononuclear cells and expanded for 6 days with anti-CD3, anti-CD28, and IL-2. CB and PB Tregs presented similar immunophenotypic features. However, Tregs isolated from CB presented a much higher expansion capacity; this was confirmed by the genomic characterization that showed in CB-derived Tregs

significant enrichments of EPZ5676 genes involved in cell proliferation, chromatin modification, and regulation of gene expression. All samples were positive for the FoxP3 gene and protein after expansion. CB and PB expanded Tregs exerted a comparable and potent suppressive function on the proliferative reaction of autologous T cells stimulated by allogeneic dendritic cells and presented a high in vitro IL-10 production capacity. Gene profile analysis also revealed for PB Tregs significant enrichments of genes involved in the adaptive immune response. These data offer further insights into the understanding of the biology of CB transplantation indicating a possible role played by CB Tregs in the suppression of the allogeneic T cell response.”
“Individuals of adult hypogean fish, Nemacheilus evezardi were caught in their natural habitats and were transported to the laboratory inside light-proof plastic containers. They were maintained in the laboratory under complete darkness prior to studying their phototactic responses under different light intensities and feeding regimens. During the period of acclimation the fishes were fed (Tokyo floating fish food) at least twice in a week and fresh water supplied a day after each feeding at random timings of the day. A choice-chamber, consisting of a light (photic) zone and a dark (aphotic) zone, was used to gauge the response to 50 or 250 or 1250 lux of achromatic light.

Antigen-presenting cells (APCs) from SLE patients were responsibl

Antigen-presenting cells (APCs) from SLE patients were responsible for decreased Treg cell activity and could also render dysfunctional Treg cells from healthy control subjects. CD4+,CD25+ Treg cells from SLE patients exhibited normal suppressive activity Fer-1 manufacturer when cultured with A-PCs from healthy controls. A partial Treg cell blockade effect was induced by the high levels of IFNa derived from SLE patient APCs.\n\nConclusion. We suggest that blockade of Treg cell-mediated suppression by IFN alpha-producing APCs in SLE patients may contribute to a pathogenic loss of peripheral tolerance in this disease.”

(CCK) and neuropeptide Y (NPY)-related peptides are key regulators of pancreatic enzyme secretion in vertebrates. CCK stimulates enzyme secretion whereas peptide Y (PY), a NPY-related peptide, plays an antagonistic role

to that of CCK. In fish, very little is known about how different nutrients affect the synthesis of CCK and PY in the digestive tract, and the mechanism by which CCK and PY actually regulate digestive enzyme secretion is not well understood. In order to determine how different nutrients stimulate the synthesis of CCK and PY in yellowtail (Seriola quinqueradiata), CCK and PY mRNA levels in the digestive tract were measured after oral administration of a single bolus of either phosphate-buffered saline (PBS: control), starch (carbohydrate), casein (protein), oleic acid (fatty acid) or tri-olein (triglyceride). S63845 In addition, in order to confirm the synthesis and secretion of digestive enzymes, the mRNA levels and enzymatic activities of three digestive enzymes (lipase, trypsin and amylase) were also analyzed. Casein, oleic acid and tri-olein increased the synthesis of lipase, trypsin and amylase, while starch and PBS did not affect the activity of any of these enzymes. CCK mRNA levels rose, while PY FK228 in vivo mRNA levels were reduced in fish administered casein, oleic acid and tri-olein. These results

suggest that in yellowtail, CCK and PY maintain antagonistic control of pancreatic enzyme secretion after intake of protein and/or fat. (c) 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vectors possess a number of properties that may make them suitable for clinical gene therapy, including being based upon a virus for which there is no known pathology and a natural propensity to persist in human cells. Wild-type adeno-associated viruses (AAVs) are now known to be very diverse and ubiquitous in humans and nonhuman primates, which adds to the degree of confidence one may place in the natural history of AAV, namely that it has never been associated with any human tumors or other acute pathology, other than sporadic reports of having been isolated from spontaneously aborted fetuses.

54) or White (0 58) populations and explained the lower PAI-1 lev

54) or White (0.58) populations and explained the lower PAI-1 levels in African (41.5 +/- 25.1 versus Entinostat ic50 68.0 +/- 33.3 and 70.5 +/- 35.7 ng/ml, respectively; p<0.0001) subjects. Except for White subjects, PAI-1 levels were higher

in those with metabolic syndrome or type 2 diabetes. PAI-1 genotype did not associate with either disorder. Metabolic syndrome-related factors had little influence on PAI-1 levels in White subjects but in African and Indians subjects these variables had a major influence on PAI-1 levels in those with the 5G/5G genotype but not in subjects with the 4G/4G genotype. Ethnic differences in PAI-1 levels are largely due to differences in the frequency of the 4G and 5G alleles at the -675 locus. In Indian and African, but not White populations, the ability of metabolic syndrome-related factors to influence PAI-1 levels is modulated by the

-675 genotype. (C) 2007 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Introduction: In osteoarthritis (OA), the subchondral bone undergoes a remodelling process involving several factors synthesized by osteoblasts. In this study, we investigated the expression, production, modulation, and role of PAR-2 in human OA subchondral bone osteoblasts.\n\nMaterials and methods: PAR-2 expression and production were determined by real-time PCR and flow cytometry, respectively. PAR-2 modulation was investigated in OA subchondral bone osteoblasts treated with IL-1 beta (100 pg/ml), TNF-alpha (5 ng/ml),

TGF-beta 1 (10 ng/ml), PGE(2) (500 nM), IL-6 (10 ng/ml) and IL-17 (10 ng/ml). Membranous selleck kinase inhibitor RANKL protein was assessed by flow cytometry, and OPG, MMP-1, MMP-9, MMP-13, IL-6 and intracellular signalling pathways by specific ELISAs. Bone resorptive activity was measured by using a co-culture model of human PBMC and OA subchondral bone osteoblasts.\n\nResults: PAR-2 expression and production (p<0.05) were markedly increased when human OA subchondral bone osteoblasts were compared to normal. On OA osteoblasts, PAR-2 production was significantly increased by IL-1 beta, TNF-alpha and PGE(2). Activation of PAR-2 with a specific agonist, SLIGKV-NH(2), induced a significant up-regulation of MMP-1, MMP-9, IL-6, and membranous RANKL, but had no effect on MMP-13 or OPG production. selleck chemical Interestingly, bone resorptive activity was also significantly enhanced following PAR-2 activation. The PAR-2 effect was mediated by activation of the MAP kinases Erk1/2 and JNK.\n\nConclusion: This study is the first to demonstrate that PAR-2 activation plays a role in OA subchondral bone resorption via an up-regulation of major bone remodelling factors. These results shed new light on the potential of PAR-2 as a therapeutic target in OA. (C) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Diafiltration of a protein solution into a new buffer is a common final step in biopharmaceutical manufacturing.

A group of different viruses that belong to the family of hemorrh

A group of different viruses that belong to the family of hemorrhagic fever could represent with HFRS. The basic

pathophysiologic feature is virus-induced leaky microcirculation. There is no effective antiviral treatment against them. Because of rapid environmental changes, global warming, and increased global traveling, different hemorrhagic fever syndromes could be found anywhere in the world and beyond their old endemic borders. This review is a brief overview of HFRS in Iran during the early and mid-twentieth century.”
“Photochemical electron donor-acceptor selleckchem triads having an aminopyrene primary donor (APy) and a p-diaminobenzene secondary donor (DAB) attached to either one or both imide nitrogen atoms of a perylene-3,4:9,10-bis(dicarboximide) (PDI) electron

acceptor were prepared to give DAB-APy-PDI and DAB-APy-PDI-APy-DAB. In toluene, both triads are monomeric, but in methylcyclohexane, they self-assemble into ordered helical heptamers and hexamers, respectively, in which the PDI molecules are pi-stacked in a columnar fashion, as evidenced by small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering. Photoexcitation of these supramolecular assemblies results in rapid formation of DAB(+center dot)-PDI(-center dot) spin-polarized radical ion pairs having spin-spin dipolar interactions, which show that the average AZD7762 distance between the two radical ions is much larger in the assemblies (31 angstrom) than it is in their monomeric building blocks (23 angstrom). This work demonstrates that electron hopping through the pi-stacked PDI molecules is fast enough to compete effectively with charge recombination (40 ns)

in these systems, making these selleck inhibitor materials of interest as photoactive assemblies for artificial photosynthesis and organic photovoltaics.”
“We present a reduced-space algorithm for solving the complex (damped) linear response equations required to compute the complex linear response function for the hierarchy of methods: coupled cluster singles, coupled cluster singles and iterative approximate doubles, and coupled cluster singles and doubles. The solver is the keystone element for the development of damped coupled cluster response methods for linear and nonlinear effects in resonant frequency regions. (C) 2013 AIP Publishing LLC.”
“Carbonaceous fluorine free nanoparticles synthesized in a low temperature acetylene discharge are used in a first step for the production of (super) hydrophobic coatings. In a second step, the influence of different plasma and UV induced functionalizations on the wetting characteristics of these materials is investigated. The experiments show that the superhydrophobic surfaces can be turned continuously and reversibly into hydrophilic (superhydrophilic) surfaces by means of the different treatment methods. The reversibility of these processes is studied in a third step.

G + C mol%

of strain JC230(T) was 54 1% Distinct morphol

G + C mol%

of strain JC230(T) was 54.1%. Distinct morphological, physiological and genotypic differences from the previously described taxa support the classification of strain JC230(T) as a representative of a new species in the genus Spirochaeta, for which the name Spirochaeta lutea sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JC230(T) (=KCTC 15387(T) = DSM 29074(T)). JIB-04 (C) 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.”
“TRAIL (TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand) is a promising anticancer agent that can be potentially used as an alternative or complementary therapy because of its specific antitumor activity. However, TRAIL can also stimulate the proliferation of cancer cells through the activation of NF-kappa B, but the exact mechanism is still poorly understood. In this study, we show that chronic exposure to subtoxic concentrations of TRAIL results in acquired resistance. This resistance is associated with the increase in miR-21, miR-30c, and miR-100 expression, which target tumorsuppressor genes fundamental in the response to TRAIL. Importantly, down-regulation of caspase-8 by miR-21 blocks receptor interacting JQEZ5 protein-1 cleavage and induces the activation of NF-kappa

B, which regulates these miRNAs. Thus, TRAIL activates a positive feedback loop that sustains the acquired resistance and causes an aggressive phenotype. Finally, we prove that combinatory treatment of NF-kappa B inhibitors and TRAIL is able to revert resistance and reduce tumor growth, with important consequences for the clinical practice.”
“Ishida K, Matsumoto T, Taguchi K, Kamata K, Kobayashi T. Mechanisms underlying altered extracellular nucleotide-induced contractions in mesenteric arteries from rats in later-stage type 2 diabetes: effect of ANG II type 1 receptor antagonism. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 301: H1850-H1861, 2011. First published August 19, 2011; doi:10.1152/ajpheart.00502.2011.-Little

is known about the vascular contractile responsiveness to, and signaling pathways for, Dinaciclib extracellular nucleotides in the chronic stage of type 2 diabetes or whether the ANG II type 1 receptor blocker losartan might alter such responses. We hypothesized that nucleotide-induced arterial contractions are augmented in diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats and that treatment with losartan would normalize the contractions. Here, we investigated the vasoconstrictor effects of ATP/UTP in superior mesenteric arteries isolated from GK rats (37-42 wk old) that had or had not received 2 wk of losartan (25 In arteries from GK rats (vs.

The extracted principal components (PC) from the descriptor data

The extracted principal components (PC) from the descriptor data matrix of each group can be considered as new sources of amino acid indices. These indices were used as input variables for QSAR study of two dipeptide data sets (58 angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor activity, and 48 bitter tasting threshold (BIT) activity). Modeling between the indices and biological activity was achieved utilizing segmented principal component regression (SPCR) and segmented partial least squares (SPLS) methods. Both methods resulted in reliable QSAR models. In comparison with conventional principal component

regression (PCR) and partial least square (PLS), the segmented ones produced more predictive models. In addition, the developed models showed better performances with respect to the previously reported models for the same data sets.

It can be concluded that by segmentation of variables and partitioning of the information into informative and redundant parts, it is possible to discard the redundant part of variables and to obtain more appropriate models. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Goals: No study to date has evaluated the relationship between coping style, burnout, and psychological functioning among gastroenterologists (GEs). This study aims to explore this relationship.\n\nBackground: Physician stress and burnout are widely studied and associated with notably poorer outcomes for both physicians and their patients. Coping is a multidimensional construct that individuals use to adapt to stressful situations. To mitigate stress, this website physicians may use problem-focused or emotion-focused coping strategies.\n\nStudy: Four hundred ten GE fellows and attending physicians

provided information about their practice, coping styles, level of burnout, psychological distress, job-related self-efficacy, and demographic background. Participants BAY 63-2521 mouse recruited from the American Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy membership through email completed a series of online questionnaires.\n\nResults: We found no significant relationships between workload and reported burnout. GEs with greater psychological distress were more likely to have an endoscopic complication in the past year. GEs that use problem-focused coping strategies were less likely to report an event in the past year, although we did not identify a significant predictive relationship between these variables. Significant differences in coping styles existed for sex and having a physician parent. Female GEs were more likely to use problem-focused coping strategies, and GEs with a physician parent were more likely to use emotion-focused strategies. Using problem-focused coping predicted decreased levels of burnout and psychological distress, and increased job-related self-efficacy.

In addition, neuroblastoma SK-N-BE cells were used as positive

In addition, neuroblastoma SK-N-BE cells were used as positive BMS345541 control. Surprisingly, E2 also induced NGB up-regulation, in a dose- and time-dependent manner, in DLD-1 cells. The ER beta-mediated activation of p38/MAPK was necessary for this E2 effect. E2 induced NGB re-allocation in mitochondria where, subsequently to an oxidative stress injury (i.e., 100 mu M H2O2), NGB interacted with cytochrome c preventing its release into the cytosol and the activation of an apoptotic cascade. As a whole, these results demonstrate that E2-induced NGB up-regulation could act as an oxidative stress sensor,

which does not oppose to the pro-apoptotic E2 effect in ER beta-containing colon cancer cells unless a rise of oxidative stress occurs. These results support the concept that oxidative stress plays a critical role in E2-induced carcinogenesis and further open an important scenario to develop novel therapeutic strategies that target NGB against E2-related cancers. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”

aquaglyceroporins of Escherichia coil, EcGlpF, and of Plasmodium falciparum, PfAQP, are probably the best characterized members of the solute-conducting aquaporin (AQP) subfamily. Their crystal structures have been elucidated and numerous experimental and theoretical analyses have been conducted. Duvelisib in vivo However, opposing reports on their rates of water permeability require clarification. Hence, we expressed EcGlpF and PfAQP in yeast, prepared protoplasts, and compared water and glycerol permeability of both aquaglyceroporins in the presence of different osmolytes, i.e. sucrose, sorbitol, PEG300, and glycerol. We found that water permeability of PfAQP strongly depends on the external osmolyte, with full inhibition by sorbitol, and increasing water permeability when glycerol, PEG300, and

sucrose were used. EcGlpF expression did not enhance water permeability over that of non-expressing control protoplasts regardless of the osmolyte. Glycerol permeability of PfAQP was also inhibited by sorbitol, but to a smaller extent, whereas EcGlpF conducted glycerol independently of the osmolyte. Mixtures of glycerol and urea passed PfAQP equally well under isosmotic conditions, GDC-0068 molecular weight whereas under hypertonic conditions in a countercurrent with water, glycerol was clearly preferred over urea. We conclude that PfAQP has high and EcGlpF low water permeability, and explain the inhibiting effect of sorbitol on PfAQP by its binding to the extracellular vestibule. The preference for glycerol under hypertonic conditions implies that in a physiological setting, PfAQP mainly acts as a water/glycerol channel rather than a urea facilitator. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Glioblastoma shows poor response to current therapies and warrants new therapeutic strategies.

(C) 2011 Elsevier Inc All rights reserved “

(C) 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial packaging is a novel food packaging technology for controlling the growth of food-borne

pathogens or spoilage bacteria in ready-to-eat food products. Fresh fish are highly perishable foodstuffs and are extremely susceptible to microbial activities. An alginate-calcium coating incorporating nisin and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) was used as an antimicrobial packaging to maintain the quality of northern snakehead (Channa argus) at refrigeration temperature (4 +/- 1 degrees C). Northern snakehead fillets were left untreated (CK), or were treated with 1000 IU mL(-1) nisin and 150 mu g mL(-1) EDTA (T1), alginate- calcium coating (T2), or alginate-calcium coating incorporating 1000 IU Selleckchem AZD6738 mL(-1) nisin and 150 mu g mL(-1) EDTA (T3).\n\nRESULTS: All treatments retarded the decay of the fish fillets. T1 more efficiently inhibited the growth of total viable mesophilic bacteria (P < 0.05) and total psychrophilic bacteria (P > 0.05) than did T2 or T3. Coating treatments predominantly

reduced chemical spoilage, reflected in total volatile base nitrogen (P > 0.05), Autophagy inhibitor purchase trimethylamine (P > 0.05), pH (P < 0.05), and thiobarbituric acid (P < 0.05), retarded water loss (P < 0.05), and increased the overall sensory scores of fish fillets [P < 0.05) compared with those of T1. There was no significant difference between the coating treatments T2 and T3 (P > 0.05).\n\nCONCLUSION: Alginate-calcium coating treatments efficiently

enhanced the quality of northern snakehead fillets during storage. (C) 2009 Society of Chemical Industry”
“1. Abiotic stress and interactions with neighbours are major selective forces but their relative importance for local adaptation has rarely been separated. Plant community theory predicts AZD1152 concentration increasing importance of competition with decreasing stress. We experimentally separated the role of neighbours and drought stress for local adaptation of two annual plant species. We predicted that neighbours amplify patterns of local adaptation with adaptation to competition prevailing in benign habitats.\n\n2. During one growing season, we combined reciprocal transplants with neighbour removals along a gradient of more than an eightfold increase in annual rainfall using populations from sites representative of Arid, Semi-arid, Mediterranean and Mesic Mediterranean ecosystems. We evaluated statistical interactions between origin and planting site with and without neighbours and quantified plant-plant interaction importance.\n\n3. An extreme drought (<63% of the average annual rainfall at the arid sites) reduced the probability of detecting neighbour effects. There was weak but non-significant evidence for local adaptation and for the amplification of adaptation patterns with neighbours for populations from wetter sites of the two species.