For surface-enhanced fluorescence it is very important that R6G s

For surface-enhanced fluorescence it is very important that R6G should be closed to the surface of Ag nanoparticles, this is realized under the help of PVP. However, fluorescence quenching occurred

once R6G’s immediate contact with the metal nanoparticles results in nonradiative energy transfer between the R6G and metal nanoparticles [30]. Without the strong resonance absorption at 560 nm nearby of the Ag nanosphere and the Au nanofilm, there is no fluorescence from the R6G/Ag nanosphere/PVP and R6G/Ag nanosphere/PVP/Au film. Even though the Ag nanowire/PVP has optical absorption at 560 nm nearby Fludarabine mw in Figure  3, no fluorescence in R6G/Ag nanowire/PVP is observed without Au nanofilm. Hereby, it is the

Au nanofilm that Cell Cycle inhibitor possesses the surface plasmon-enhanced fluorescence. The gold nanofilm is proven to be very effective fluorescence resonance energy transfer donors. The main factors that affect surface plasmon-enhanced fluorescence are (1) nanoparticle size and shape of the metal; (2) the distance between metal nanoparticles and luminophor; and (3) the electromagnetic field effect in exciting light, surface plasmon polaritons, and fluorescence of luminophor. Conclusions The absorption and fluorescence spectra of the nanocomposite PVP films with Ag nanoparticles and Rhodamine 6G prepared on the two-dimensional continuous ultrathin gold nanofilm have been studied. Absorption spectral analysis suggests that the prominently light absorption in Ag nanowire/PVP and Ag nanowire/PVP/Au film arises from the localized surface plasmons resonance of Ag Thiazovivin nanowire and Au nanofilm. The enhanced fluorescence is observed in the presence of Ag nanowire and gold nanofilm, which is attributed to the excitation of surface plasmon

polaritons Reverse transcriptase resonance of Ag nanowire and gold nanofilm. We have produced a two-dimensional continuous ultrathin gold nanofilm which possesses high local-field enhancement effect, high SERS activity, and surface-enhanced fluorescence. Acknowledgements This work is supported by NSFC under grant number 61307066, Doctoral Fund of Ministry of Education of China under grant numbers 20110092110016 and 20130092120024, Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province under grant number BK20130630, the National Basic Research Program of China (973 Program) under grant number 2011CB302004, and the Foundation of Key Laboratory of Micro-Inertial Instrument and Advanced Navigation Technology, Ministry of Education, China under grant number 201204. References 1. Long MC, Jiang JJ, Li Y, Cao RQ, Zhang LY, Cai WM: Effect of gold nanoparticles on the photocatalytic and photoelectrochemical performance of Au modified BiVO 4 . Micro Nano Lett 2011,3(3):171–177. 2. Wu J, Mangham SC, Reddy VR, Manasreh MO, Weaver BD: Surface plasmon enhanced intermediate band based quantum dots solar cell. Sol Energy Mater Sol Cells 2012, 102:44–49.

CrossRef 6 Subrahmanyam S, Karim K, Piletsky SA: Computational a

CrossRef 6. Subrahmanyam S, Karim K, Piletsky SA: Computational approaches in the design of synthetic receptors. In Designing Receptors for the Next Generation of Biosensors. Edited by: Piletsky SA, Whitcombe MJ. Transmembrane Transporters inhibitor Berlin Heidelberg: Springer; 2013:134–166. 7. Piletska EV, Guerreiro AR, Whitcombe MJ, Piletsky SA: Influence of the polymerization conditions on the performance

of molecularly imprinted polymers. Macromolecules 2009, 42:4921–4928.CrossRef 8. Leardi R: Dactolisib clinical trial experimental design in chemistry: a tutorial. Anal Chim Acta 2009, 652:161–172.CrossRef 9. Verma A, Hartonen K, Riekkola M: Optimisation of supercritical fluid extraction of indole alkaloids from Catharanthus roseus using experimental design methodology – comparison with other extraction techniques. Phytochem Anal 2008, 19:52–63.CrossRef 10. Lin J, Su M, Wang X, Qiu Y, Li H, Hao J, Yang H, Zhou M, Yan C, Jia W: Multiparametric analysis of amino acids and organic

acids in rat brain tissues using GC/MS. J Separation Science 2008, 31:2831–2838.CrossRef 11. Kempe H, Kempe M: Novel methods for the synthesis of molecularly imprinted polymer bead libraries. Macromolecules. Rapid Commun 2004, 25:315–320.CrossRef 12. Mijangos I, Villoslada FN, Guerreiro A, Piletska EV, Chianella I, Karim K, Turner APF, Piletsky SA: Influence of initiator and different polymerisation conditions on performance of molecularly imprinted polymers. Biosen Bioelectron Anidulafungin (LY303366) 2006, 22:381–387.CrossRef 13. Nicholls IA, Andersson HS, Golker K, Henschel H, Karlsson BCG, Olsson GD, Wikman S: Rational design of biomimetic molecularly imprinted materials: CHIR98014 mw theoretical and computational strategies for guiding nanoscale structured polymer development.

Anal Bioanal Chem 2011, 400:1771–1786.CrossRef Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Authors’ contributions KM carried out the experimental design and took part in the synthesis of MIP nanoparticles, KK participated in sequence alignment and drafted the manuscript. AG carried out the nanoMIP yield assay. AP participated in the preparation of template-derivatized glass beads and took part in synthesis of MIP nanoparticles. SP participated in the design of the study and performed the data analysis. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.”
“Background Surface plasmon-polariton (SPP) waves excited on a metal-dielectric interface allow the control and manipulation of light at nanoscale dimensions [1]. The propagation range of SPPs on a metal-dielectric interface is limited due to ohmic losses and scattering on random and intended interface irregularities [2–4]. Ohmic losses of free electrons depend on the SPP frequency range and the temperature of the structure and thus cannot be ultimately reduced. Therefore, further development of plasmonic devices is possible via reduction of scattering losses of SPPs.

(2011) identified three different genes, representing two operons

(2011) identified three different genes, representing two operons (lmo1854; lmo2185 and lmo2186), that showed lower transcript levels in the parent strain compared to the ΔsigC mutant, suggesting negative regulation by σC[7]. While our data are consistent with previous

findings of a limited σC regulon in L. monocytogenes 10403S, it is possible that σC- dependent gene regulation only occurs under specific conditions (e.g., heat stress [3]) and that more complete identification of the σC regulon requires transcriptomic and proteomic studies under specific conditions that remain to be defined. In addition, future experiments using an L. monocytogenes strain that expresses sigC from an inducible promoter may also allow for identification of additional proteins that show σC-dependent production; this strategy applied to other alternative σ factors may also allow for selleck chemicals identification of additional proteins that

show σH- or σL-dependent production. Proteins regulated by multiple alternative σ factors include MptA, which has a potential role in regulation selleck compound of PrfA Our data reported here also provided an opportunity to gather further insight into genes and proteins that are co-regulated by multiple σ factors and, consequently, into regulatory networks among different alternative σ factors. To facilitate these analyses, we also compared the protein levels between the L. monocytogenes parent strain and the ΔBCHL strain (which does not express any alternative σ factors). This analysis identified (i) 33 proteins that showed significantly higher levels (FC ≥ 1.5; p c < 0.05) in the parent strain as compared to the ΔBCHL strain (Additional

file 1: Table S1) and (ii) 44 proteins that show lower levels in the parent as compared to the ΔBCHL mutant (Additional file 1: Table S1). Approximately 40% of the proteins that showed differential production (either up or down) are involved in energy metabolism and transport and binding functions (Figure 1). Among the 33 proteins that showed higher levels in the parent strain, (i) two were also found to be positively regulated by σH; (ii) one was also positively regulated acetylcholine by σH and σL, and (iii) one was also positively regulated by σH, σL and σC (Figure 2; Table 4). In addition, 12 of the 29 proteins that were found to be positively regulated in the parent strain, were also found to be positively regulated by σB in a recent proteomics study, which compared L. monocytogenes parent strain 10403S and ΔsigB mutant grown to stationary phase under the same conditions as used here [23]. While these 12 proteins likely represent proteins that are positively regulated by σB, the other 17 proteins that showed higher levels in the parent strain as compared to the ΔBCHL strain, but were not identified as positively regulated by any of the alternative σ factors, represent candidate proteins for TSA HDAC redundant co-regulation by multiple alternative σ factors. Future experiments using an L.

Acknowledgements This study was financially supported by Natural

Acknowledgements This study was financially supported by Natural Science Foundation of China under grant No. 11134006 and 51321091. Electronic supplementary material Additional file 1: Figure S1 LSCM images: (a) the products obtained from 2.5 mM CaCl2. (b) the products obtained from 10 mM CaCl2. Figure S1 shows the LSCM images of products grown in the mixing solutions with

CaCl2 concentrations of 2.5 mM (Figure S1a) and 10 mM (Figure S1b) respectively. The regular branched products could not be found in Figure S1, which means no such branched products are formed with CaCl2 concentration which is lower than 5 mM or higher ATR inhibitor than 7.5 mM. (JPEG 321 KB) References 1. Zhou GT, Guan YB, Yao QZ, Fu SQ: Biominetic mineralization of prismatic calcite mesocrystals: relevance to biomineralization. Chem Geol 2010, 279:63–72. 10.1016/j.chemgeo.2010.08.020CrossRef 2. Dong WY, Cheng HX, Yao Y, Zhou YF, 17DMAG concentration Tong GS, Yan DY, Lai YJ, Li W: Bioinspired synthesis of calcium carbonate hollow spheres with a nacre-type laminated microstructure. Langmuir 2011,27(1):366–370. 10.1021/la1034799CrossRef 3. Faatz M, Gröhn

F, Wegner G: Amorphous calcium carbonate synthesis and potential intermediate in biominerlization. Adv Mater 2004, 16:996–1000. 10.1002/adma.200306565CrossRef 4. Weiss IM, Tuross N, Addadi L, Weiner S: Mollusc larval shell formation: amorphous calcium carbonate is a precursor phase for aragonite. J Exp Zool 2002, 293:478–491. 10.1002/jez.90004CrossRef 5. Kaempfe P, Lauth VR, Halfer T, Treccani L, Maas M, Rezwan K: Micromolding of calcium carbonate using a bio-inspired, coacervation-mediated process. J Am

Ceram Soc 2013,96(3):736–742. 10.1111/jace.12194CrossRef 6. Bentov S, Weil S, Glazer L, Sagi A, Berman A: Stabilization of amorphous calcium carbonate by phosphate rich organic matrix proteins and by single phosphoamino acids. J Struct Biol 2010, 171:207–215. 10.1016/j.jsb.2010.04.007CrossRef Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II 7. Maruyama K, this website Yoshino T, Kagi H: Synthesizing a composite material of amorphous calcium carbonate and aspartic acid. Mater Lett 2011, 65:179–181. 10.1016/j.matlet.2010.09.039CrossRef 8. Gorna K, Hund M, Vučak M, Gröhn F, Wegner G: Amorphous calcium carbonate in form of spherical nanosized particles and its application as fillers for polymers. Mat Sci Eng A 2008, 477:217–225. 10.1016/j.msea.2007.05.045CrossRef 9. Ciriminna R, Fidalgo A, Pandarus V, Béland F, Ilharco LM, Pagliaro M: The sol-gel route to advanced silica-based materials and recent applications. Chem Rev 2013,113(8):6592–6620. 10.1021/cr300399cCrossRef 10. Iler RK: The Chemistry of Silica. New York: Wiley-Intersicence; 1979. 11. Kistler SS: Coherent expanded aerogels and jellies. Nature 1931, 127:741.CrossRef 12. Pagliaro M: Silica-Based Materials for Advanced Chemical Applications. UK: RSC publishing; 2009. 13.

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is well known potent an

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is well known potent angiogenic

factor [42]. In addition to VEGF, IL-8/CXCL8 and CXCL5 have been identified as important pro-angiogenic proteins in human NSCLC [43, 44]. It has previously been shown that IL-27 has anti-angiogenic activity by down regulating the expression of VEGF, IL-8/CXCL8 and CXCL5 in human multiple myeloma cells [3]. In this study, we examined the production of pro-angiogenic factors, VEGF, IL-8/CXCL8, and CXCL5, to determine the effects of IL-27 on angiogenesis in human lung cancer. STAT1 and STAT3 are known to have opposing roles in VEGF regulation. For example, STAT1 has been shown to be a negative regulator of VEGF and

angiogenesis [16, 45, 46]. In contrast, STAT3 transactivation with other factors is required for full induction of the VEGF promoter in cancer cells [47]. Similarly, PX-478 cell line STAT1 is required for inhibition of IL-8 expression mediated by other cytokines [48]. Constitutive activation or knockdown of STAT3 has been shown to up regulate or suppress IL-8 production in human melanoma cells, respectively [49]. The role of STAT1 and STAT3 pathways in the production of CXCL5 in cancer has not been well studied. On this basis, the expression learn more of angiogenic factors were measured in A549 cells by ELISA after being exposed for 24 hours to IL-27 alone or after being pre-treated with STAT1 siRNA or STAT3 inhibitor, Stattic. Our results demonstrate that the inhibition of STAT1 by siRNA in A549 cells

led to increased production of VEGF, IL-8 and CXCL5 (Figure 6A, 6C, and 6E) while the suppression of STAT3 activation caused reduced secretion of the pro-angiogenic factors Metalloexopeptidase (Figure 6B, 6D, and 6F). IL-27 treated cells showed statistically significant decrease in expression of VEGF, IL-8/CXCL8, and CXCL5 compared to untreated cells (Figure 6A, 6C, and 6E, respectively). Inhibition of the STAT1 pathway by pretreatment with STAT1 siRNA, but not control siRNA, reversed the IL-27 mediated decreased expression of VEGF, IL-8/CXCL8, and CXCL5, resulting in increased levels of these pro-angiogenic factors to levels significantly higher than untreated controls. Figure 6 Down-regulation of angiogenic factors and up-regulation of angiostatic factors by STAT1-dependent pathway. (A-F) Protein concentrations of VEGF (A, B), IL-8/CXCL8 (C, D), CXCL5 (E, F) secreted by A549 cells were measured by ELISA. A549 cells were either transfected with STAT1 siRNAs (40 nM) or control siRNA for 24 hours and further treated with or without Stattic (7.5 nM) for 1 hour Doramapimod datasheet followed by IL-27 (50 ng/mL) treatment for 24 hours. The cell culture supernatants were used for ELISA. * p vs. no treatment, ** p vs. IL-27 by student t- test. The impact of the STAT3 pathway was also studied by the addition of Stattic to the IL-27-treated cells.

Oleksik A, Lips P, Dawson A, Minshall ME, Shen W, Cooper C, Kanis

Oleksik A, Lips P, Dawson A, Minshall ME, Shen W, Cooper C, Kanis J (2000) Health-related quality of life in postmenopausal women with low BMD with or without prevalent fractures. J Bone Miner Res 15:1384–1392PubMedCrossRef 7. Salaffi F, Cimmino MA, Malavolta N, Carotti M, Di Matteo L, Scendoni P, Grassi W, Italian Multicentre Osteoporotic Fracture Study Group (2007) The burden of prevalent fractures on health-related quality of life in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis: the IMOF study.

J Rheumatol 34:1551–1560PubMed 8. Silverman SL, Minshall ME, Shen W, Harper KD, Xie S (2001) The relationship of health-related quality of life to prevalent and incident vertebral fractures in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis: results Selleck LDN-193189 from the Chk inhibitor Multiple Outcomes of Raloxifene

Evaluation Study. Arthritis Rheum 44:2611–2619PubMedCrossRef 9. Silverman SL, Piziak VK, Chen P, Misurski DA, Wagman RB (2005) Relationship of health related quality of life to prevalent and new or worsening back pain in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. J Rheumatol 32:2405–2409PubMed 10. Cauley JA, Thompson DE, Ensrud KC, Scott JC, Black D (2000) Risk of mortality following clinical fractures. Osteoporos Int 11:556–561PubMedCrossRef 11. Kanis JA, Burlet N, Cooper C, Delmas PD, Reginster J-Y, Borgstrom F, Rizzoli R, on behalf of the Eltanexor price European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis (ESCEO) (2008) European guidance for the diagnosis and management of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Osteoporos Int 19:399–428PubMedCrossRef 12. Neer RM, Arnaud CD, Zanchetta JR, Prince Ponatinib in vitro R, Gaich GA, Reginster JY, Hodsman AB, Eriksen EF, Ish-Shalom S, Genant HK, Wang O, Mitlak BH (2001) Effect of parathyroid hormone (1–34) on fractures and bone mineral density in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. N Engl J Med 344:1434–1441PubMedCrossRef 13. Dowd R, Recker RR, Heaney RP (2000) Study subjects and ordinary patients. Osteoporos Int 11:533–536PubMedCrossRef 14. Silverman SL (2009) From randomized controlled trials to observational studies. Am J Med 122:114–120PubMedCrossRef 15. Langdahl BL, Rajzbaum G, Jakob F, Karras D, Ljunggren

O, Lems WF, Fahrleitner-Pammer A, Walsh JB, Barker C, Kutahov A, Marin F (2009) Reduction in fracture rate and back pain and increased quality of life in postmenopausal women treated with teriparatide: 18-month data from the European Forsteo Observational Study (EFOS). Calcif Tissue Int 85:484–493PubMedCrossRef 16. Rajzbaum G, Jakob F, Karras D, Ljunggren O, Lems WF, Langdahl BL, Fahrleitner-Pammer A, Walsh JB, Gibson A, Tynan AJ, Marin F (2007) Characterization of patients in the European Forsteo Observational Study (EFOS): postmenopausal women entering teriparatide treatment in a community setting. Curr Med Res Opin 24:377–384CrossRef 17. Ross PD (1997) Clinical consequences of vertebral fractures. Am J Med 103:30S–42SPubMedCrossRef 18.

Bacterial strains A total of 538 isolates selected from 8,663 ser

Bacterial strains A total of 538 isolates selected from 8,663 serotype Typhimurium isolates from the French Food Safety Agency (AFSSA, Maisons-Alfort, France) collection were analyzed. They were isolated between 1999 and 2009 in France and identified

as Salmonella enterica enterica selleckchem serotype Typhimurium according to the White-Kauffmann-Le Minor scheme by agglutination with O- and H-antigen specific sera (BioRad, Marnes-la-Coquette, France). The Salmonella isolates are sent on a voluntary basis through a network 150 veterinary or food analysis laboratories covering different French districts. Sampling was carried out firstly to remove duplicate strains ITF2357 and to select different sources of isolation and secondly on a random basis. The selected isolates can be considered representative of the total collection of the Salmonella network. Thus, for each year, at least one representative

isolate from the three main sectors–animals, food or the environment (natural environment or ecosystem)–was tested. Within each sector, we then selected strains from various food-animal sources (poultry, swine and cattle) including primary production much sites, livestock farms and raw materials from processing sites or from domestic or wild species. As described in Table 2, isolates were from samples of pigs (n = 61), poultry (n = 212), cattle (n = 67) and from other minor domestic or wild animal species (n = 51). The latter included strains from birds (n = 11), sheep (n = 9), horses

(n = 6), goats (n = 5), snakes (n = 2) and rabbits (n = 2). We also investigated strains isolated from the environment (n = 23) and food products (n = 90), including VX-689 supplier ready-to-eat foods (n = 16), pork (n = 28), dairy products (n = 14), beef (n = 6), seafood (n = 5), egg products (n = 5) and vegetables (n = 3). Analyses were also conducted on a panel of few clinical human Salmonella Typhimurium isolates (n = 28) collected by the National Reference Centre for Salmonella (Institut Pasteur, Paris) and selected according to their various sources and PFGE genetic diversity. Table 2 Genotype distribution according to isolation sources   Food Animal sources         Genotype No.

However, other insect viruses are known to contain RNAi suppresso

However, other insect viruses are known to contain RNAi suppressors that aid in their replication via suppression of the RNAi response. The B2 protein from the insect-pathogenic FHV is a potent viral suppressor of RNA silencing (VSR) that binds to dsRNA as a dimer in a sequence-independent manner and can bind a range of dsRNA

sizes [11, 12]. The Selleck Staurosporine generic and promiscuous nature of dsRNA binding by B2, evidenced by its ability to inhibit RNAi in plants, nematodes, and insects, makes it an excellent candidate to study the effects of RNAi suppression in mosquitoes [13–16]. This report describes the production of a recombinant SINV that expresses a heterologous VSR protein and use of the virus to directly study the effects of RNAi on mosquito infection. A TE/3’2J virus was engineered to express the B2 protein, with the hypothesis that expression of B2 during SINV infection would inhibit the RNAi EGFR inhibitor response in infected mosquito cells and that this inhibition will lead to increased virus replication within the mosquito. The VSR was functional in mosquito cells and affected the replication of TE/3’2J virus in Ae. aegypti cell culture. Mosquito ACY-1215 ic50 infection experiments show that not only are rates of infection and dissemination of SINV in Ae. aegypti increased if RNAi is inhibited, but that the B2-expressing

virus became highly pathogenic in the mosquito, significantly shortening the mosquitoes’ lifespan. These

studies highlight the necessity for RNAi from both the standpoint of mosquito survival and arbovirus persistence. Results Inhibition of RNAi by a SINV-expressed VSR After rescue of infectious virus from cDNA-derived RNA, expression of V5 epitope-tagged B2 protein from the second subgenomic promoter was verified by immunoblot analysis of total protein from infected Aag2 cells. Using a commercial antibody against the V5 epitope, we observed a single band of approximately 12 kilodaltons (kDa) in B2-infected cells (Figure 1), in agreement with the predicted size of V5-tagged B2 protein (12.4 kDa). No bands were detected in cells infected with TE/3’2J, TE/3’2J/GFP, or mock-infected cells. Figure 1 Detection of V5-B2 Mannose-binding protein-associated serine protease protein in mosquito cell culture. V5-B2 protein was detected by immunoblot using anti-V5 antibody in total protein from Aag2 cell culture. Molecular weights are indicated on the left side of each panel. Lane 1, protein molecular weight marker. Lane 2, TE/3’2J/B2-infected cells. Lane 3, TE/3’2J/GFP-infected cells. Lane 4, TE/3’2J-infected cells. Lane 5, Mock-infected cells. To determine the ability of SINV-expressed B2 protein to inhibit the mosquito RNAi response, an in vitro dicing assay was performed. A synthetic 500 bp biotinylated dsRNA derived from the bacterial β-galactosidase gene was introduced into Aag2 cell lysates produced from cells mock-infected or infected with GFP- or B2-expressing virus.

Therefore, the EDC NPs that have the strongest fluorescence, when

Therefore, the EDC NPs that have the strongest fluorescence, when annealed at 700°C, contain the highest concentration of Ce3+ states [10]. The peak amplitude of the down-conversion emission decreases with increasing anneal temperature,

indicating that the higher temperature annealing reduce the concentration of oxygen vacancies and Ce3+ ionization states. This is most clearly observed in samples annealed at 900°C. Figure 4 Spectra of down-converted and up-converted see more emissions (a,b) and diagram of up-conversion energy mechanisms (c). (a) When excited at 430 nm and (b) when excited at 780 nm measured on samples of EDC NPs annealed at 700°C, 800°C, and 900°C. Dotted lines in (c) are non-radiative transitions. When the EDC NPs are excited by near-IR (λ = 780 nm) photons, visible emission is observed at two regions in the visible wavelength range; the primary emission is between 520 to 560 nm and

a much smaller emission is found at 660 to 680 nm, as shown in Figure 4b. We hypothesize that erbium ions form stable complexes with oxygen in the ceria host during the anneal and the crystalline structure of the nanoparticle improves, both Selleckchem CH5424802 of which increase the efficiency of Er+3 ions to act as optically active centers for up-conversion [19]. The results include a slight improvement of the this website intensity of the up-conversion emission with increasing 4��8C annealing temperature. A portion of the Dieke diagram is illustrated in Figure 4c, which shows that excited state absorption (ESA) is possible. First, the erbium ion is excited from 4I15/2 level to 4I9/2[13]. From the 4I9/2 state, the excited Er+3 ion non-radiatively relaxes to the 4I11/2 state. If a second 780-nm photon interacts with the

excited Er+3 ion, an ESA process occurs, which excites the erbium ion to the level of 4 F7/2. After a series of non-radiative relaxations to lower levels such as 2H11/2, 4S3/2, and 4 F9/2, radiative relaxation to the 4I15/2 state occurs and visible emission results; green photons are emitted during the transitions from 2H11/2 and 4S3/2 to 4I15/2 while red photons are emitted during the 4 F9/2 to 4I15/2 transition. Conclusions In conclusion, this paper presents a study on a new synthesized nanomaterial, EDC NPs, that emit photons in the visible wavelength range when illuminated by two different excitation sources: near-UV light (430 nm) and near-IR (780 nm) light. When the excitation source is near-UV light, a down-conversion process results in a broad emission peak centred at 520 nm. Up-conversion of the near-IR light is responsible for the narrower bands of green and red emission. Anneals at temperatures of 700°C and 800°C in a hydrogen-nitrogen atmosphere reduces the cerium ions from the Ce4+ to Ce3+ state.

Exp Cell Res 1998, 241 (2) : 394–403 CrossRefPubMed 7 Daigeler A

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