After 16 h, the samples were then centrifuged at 12000 × g for 5

After 16 h, the samples were then centrifuged at 12000 × g for 5 min at room temperature and the fluorescence of the supernatant Cell Cycle inhibitor was measured using the excitation and emission wavelengths

of 295 and 490 nm, respectively. Levofloxacin concentrations were calculated using a standard curve of the antibiotic (concentration ranging from 0.42 μg/ml to 6.38 μg/ml) in 0.1 M glycine-HCl buffer, pH 3.0. To correct for any endogenous signal the fluorescence of a control cell lysate, measured on samples not exposed to the drug, was subtracted from the experimental values. The intracellular levels of levofloxacin were expressed as drug accumulation in 109 cells, after counting of viable cells for each time point. The accumulation of levofloxacin was determined at the following time intervals: 0 min, 0 min+ drug, 2.5 min, 5 min, 10 min, 15 min, and 20 min. To determine

whether levofloxacin was actively effluxed from B. cenocepacia J2315 and the mutant strains, reserpine (8 μg/ml) was added 2.5 GSK126 supplier min after the addition of levofloxacin and the samples were treated as described above. Purification, detection and quantification of N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHLs) The purification, detection and visualization of AHL signal molecules from culture supernatants were performed as described previously [41]. Bacterial strains were inoculated in 50 ml of half diluted LB and grown at 37°C with constant agitation until OD600 reached 2.5. Organic extractions with ethyl acetate (0.1% acetic acid) were performed twice on each supernatant and extracts were dried and resuspended in CH5424802 purchase acidified ethyl acetate in 1/1000 of the original volume. Quantification of AHLs was determined using the reporter plasmid pSCR1. This plasmid

contains the cepR gene and the cepI gene promoter controlling the expression of a promoterless β-galactosidase (lacZ) gene and functions as a sensor of AHL molecules [42]. Overnight cultures of E. coli DH5α Fluorometholone Acetate carrying pSCR1 were normalized to an OD600 of 0.1 in a volume of 20 ml LB containing 10 μL of the AHL purified extract (prepared as described above). 10 μL of ethyl acetate were used as negative control, while 100 nM of synthetic C8-HSL (Sigma-Fluka) was used as positive control. Cultures were then grown with agitation at 37°C for 6 h and β-galactosidase activities were determined [42]. Acknowledgements The authors are grateful to Dr. Claudio Seppi (Dipartimento di Biochimica A. Castellani, University of Pavia, Italy) for fluorometer availability to perform efflux experiments. R.S.F. was supported by a studentship from the Canadian Cystic Fibrosis Foundation. M.A.V. holds a Canada Research Chair in Infectious Diseases and Microbial Pathogenesis. This research was supported by a grant from Italian Cystic Fibrosis Research Foundation (FFC). The project was adopted by FFC Delegation of Lago di Garda e Bergamo. References 1.

References 1 Li YF, Wang XJ: Experiment technology of heating me

References 1. Li YF, Wang XJ: Experiment technology of heating method for measuring wetness of flowing wet selleck compound steam. J Eng Therm Energy Power 2001,16(2):153–156. 2. Wang SL, Yang SR, Wang JG: Study on a method of wetness CYC202 purchase measurement on line and industrial test for steam turbine exhaust. Proc CSEE 2005,25(17):83–87. 3. Kleiz A, Laali AR, Courant JJ: Fog droplet size

measurement and calculation in wet steam turbines. In Proceedings of International Conference about Technology of Turbine Plant Operating with Wet Steam, BNES, IMechE, London. New York: Sage; 11–13 October 1988:177–182. 4. Mitra C, Maity S, Banerjee A, Pandey A, Behera A, Jammu V: Development of steam quality measurement and monitoring technique using absorption spectroscopy with diode lasers. IEEE Sensors J 2011,11(5):1214–1219.CrossRef 5. Han Z, Qian J: Study on a method of steam wetness measurement based on microwave resonant cavity. In 9th International Conference on Electronic Measurement & Instruments, 2009 (ICEMI ’09), Beijing, 16–19 August 2009. Piscataway: IEEE; 2009:1–604–1-607. 6. Rieger NF, Dooley RB: The influence of electrostatic charge in the phase transition zone of a steam turbine. Power Plant Chem 2001,3(5):255–261. 7. Luijtena CCM, van Dongena MEH, Stormbomb LE: Pressure influence in capacitive humidity measurement. Selleck Alvocidib Sens Actuators B 1998,49(7):279–282.CrossRef 8.

Tian R, Du L, Zhang P, Ning D: Experimental research on steam wetness measurement by capacitance sensor. In 2011 Asia-Pacific Power and Energy Engineering

Conference (APPEEC), Wuhan, 25–28 March 2011. Piscataway: IEEE; 2011:1–5. 9. Liu ZL, Geng GS, Gou ZC: Application of nonradioactive tracer determination in determination of primary steam humidity. Heilongjiang Electric Power 2003,25(3):168–171. 10. Dibelius G, Dörr A, Ederhof A, Koziorowski K, Meier F, Ossendorf E, Schermann : Erfahrungen mit der bestimmung der dampffeuchte bei den abnahmeversuchen im kernkraftwerk Biblis. VGB Kraftwerkstechnik 1977,57(9):610–619. 11. Li XF, Yu SF: Extremely high sensitive plasmonic refractive index sensors based on metallic grating. Plasmonics 2010,5(4):389–394.CrossRef 12. Gefitinib mw Maxwell Garnett JC: Colours in metal glasses and in metallic films. Phil Trans of the Royal Society, London, UK 1904, 203:385–420.CrossRef 13. Sihvola A: Electromagnetic Mixing Formulas and Applications. London: IEEE Publishing; 1999.CrossRef Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Authors’ contributions XJL carried out the experiments and drafted the manuscript. Discussion and revision were from XFL and CHW. XFL improved the manuscript. CHW supervised the work. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.”
“Background In x Ga1-x As1-y N y semiconductor alloy was first proposed by Kondow et al.

While amyloid spores are now known to occur in the Hygrophoraceae

While amyloid spores are now known to occur in the Hygrophoraceae in Pseudoarmillariella (Lodge Selleck GNS-1480 et al. 2006 and Matheny

et al. 2006) and Cantharellula (Lawrey et al. 2009), the red reaction to alkali in Pseudohygrophorus is a distinctive character (Redhead et al. 2000). In 2000, Redhead et al. expanded Pseudohygrophorus to include two additional species with red staining reactions in alkali and amyloid spores. The analysis by Binder et al. (2010) shows Neohygrophorus in the tricholomatoid clade, but without support. Matheny et al. (2006) and Lawrey et al. (2009) included Pterula in their analyses, but the Pterulaceae falls outside the hygrophoroid clade in a six-gene analysis (Binder et al. 2010), and near Radulomyces among the corticioid fungi in Dentinger et al. (2009). Previously, species of Lichenomphalia were often treated in Omphalina

Quél. Analyses by both Lawrey et al. (2009) and click here our data, however, indicate that the Omphalina s.s. clade is basal to the Hygrophoraceae s.l. while Lichenomphalia falls within the family. Thus, we do not include infrageneric classification of Omphalina s.s. here but Omphalina has been treated elsewhere (Lamoure 1974; 1975, Lange 1981, Lutzoni 1997; Redhead et al. 2002). The genus Porpoloma has been reassigned to the tricholomatoid clade. Herink (1959) made an attempt to erect a provisional section, “Metapodiae”, nom. invalid, in Neohygrocybe Resveratrol for a fuscous, red-staining species with smooth, amyloid spores, Porpoloma metapodium. Singer (1952) erected gen. Porpoloma for three Argentinian species of Nothofagus forest, then combined the European Hygrophorus metapodius (Fr.) Fr. in Porpoloma in 1973. Porpoloma metapodium was treated as Hygrophorus by Hesler and Smith (1963, as H.sect. Amylohygrocybe), and as Hygrocybe by Moser (1967).

Singer (1986) later placed Porpoloma in the Tricholomataceae, tribe Leucopaxilleae – a placement supported by molecular phylogenetic analysis of LSU sequences (Moncalvo et al. 2002). General Discussion and Conclusions For this partial revision of the Hygrophoraceae, we used a combination of previous and new molecular phylogenetic analyses together with morphological, chemical and ecological traits to evaluate previously proposed Linnaean-based higher-level classifications of taxa (above species rank). The use of cladistic approaches (Donoghue and Cantino 1988; De Queiroz and Guathier 1992; De Queiroz 1996a, b) versus classical Linnaean nomenclature (Brummitt 1996a, b; Orchard et al. 1996) has been hotly debated in biology, including Idasanutlin nmr mycology (Hibbett and Donoghue 1998). Two of the most vexing disparities between the Linnaean and cladistic approaches are recognition of paraphyletic groups in the Linnaean but not the cladistic system, and the temptation to proliferate Linnaean ranks based on cladistic analyses.

References 1 Ronson C, Lyttleton P, Robertson J: C 4 -dicarboxyl

References 1. Ronson C, Lyttleton P, Robertson J: C 4 -dicarboxylate transport mutants of Rhizobium trifolii form ineffective SRT2104 ic50 nodules on Trifolium repens . Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1981,

78:4284–4288.PubMedCrossRef 2. Salminen S, Streeter J: Labeling of carbon pools in Bradyrhizobium japonicum and Rhizobium leguminosarum bv viciae bacteroids following incubation of intact nodules with C14. Plant Physiol 1992, 100:597–604.PubMedCrossRef 3. Finan T, Wood J, Jordan D: Symbiotic properties of C 4 -dicarboxylic acid transport mutants of Rhizobium leguminosarum . J Bacteriol 1983, 154:1403–1413.PubMed 4. Trainer MA, Charles TC: The role of PHB metabolism in the symbiosis of rhizobia with legumes. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2006,71(4):377–86. [0175–7598 (Print) Journal Article Review]PubMedCrossRef 5. Craig A, Williamson K: Three inclusions of rhizobial bacteroids and their cytochemical character. Arch Microbiol 1972, 87:165–171. 6. Goodchild D, Bergerson F: Electron microscopy of the infection and subsequent development of soybean nodule cells. J Bacteriol 1966, 92:204–213.PubMed 7. Zevenhuizen L: Cellular glycogen, B-1,2-glucan-poly-B-hydroxybutyric EPZ5676 ic50 acid and extracellular polysaccharides in fast-growing species of Rhizobium. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 1981, 47:481–497.PubMedCrossRef

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FM: Ultrastructural analysis of ineffective alfalfa nodules formed by nif ::Tn 5 mutants of Rhizobium meliloti . J Bacteriol 1983, 155:367–380.PubMed 10. Mergaert P, Uchiumi T, Alunni B, Evanno G, Cheron A, Catrice O, Mausset AE, Barloy-Hubler F, Galibert F, Kondorosi A, Kondorosi E: Eukaryotic control on bacterial cell cycle and differentiation in the Rhizobium-legume symbiosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2006,103(13):5230–5235.PubMedCrossRef 11. Lodwig E, Hosie A, Bourdes A, Findlay K, Allaway D, Karunakaran R, Downie J, Poole P: Amino-acid cycling drives nitrogen fixation in the legume-Rhizobium symbiosis. Nature 2003, 422:722–726.PubMedCrossRef 12. Abe T, Kobayashi T, Saito T: Properties of a novel intracellular poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) depolymerase with high specific activity (PhaZd) in Wautersia eutropha H16. J Bacteriol 2005,187(20):6982–6990.PubMedCrossRef 13. Saegusa H, Shiraki M, Kanai C, Saito T: Cloning of an intracellular Poly-3-Hydroxybutyrate depolymerase gene from Ralstonia eutropha H16 and characterization of the gene product. J Bacteriol 2001, 183:94–100.PubMedCrossRef 14. Tseng CL, Chen HJ, Shaw GC: Identification and characterization of the Bacillus thuringiensis phaZ gene, encoding new intracellular poly-3-hydroxybutyrate depolymerase. J Bacteriol 2006,188(21):7592–7599.PubMedCrossRef 15.

The results presented here

The results presented here indicate that the disassembly is also performed in

a defined order. The loss of flagellar motility at low pH could already be shown for the closely related Rhizobium leguminosarum bv.viciae and A. tumefaciens [50, 58], whereas the more distantly related enterobacteria E. coli and Salmonella enterica serovar Thyphimurium showed an opposite response [59–61]. For cases of induced motility it was argued that at low pH the large ΔpH drives flagellar rotation [62]. Since there are also reports of E coli where it could be demonstrated that motility is lost at low pH [63] the picture is ambiguous. A turndown of the flagellar motility genes of S. meliloti was also observed for other stresses like osmotic Bindarit concentration stress Dactolisib solubility dmso [14, 64], heat shock and nutrient starvation [31]. It is therefore apparent that this response is a general stress response of S. meliloti 1021 and not an answer specific for pH stress. Since cell motility is very energy consumptive, the repression of the selleck inhibitor motility genes is likely to save energy which is needed to face the low pH e.g. by enhancing the EPS I biosynthesis. Figure 5 Map of genes of the flagellar biosynthesis region on the chromosome of S. meliloti 1021 and their expression in response to acidic pH. A part of the flagellar gene region is schematically

displayed with its genes given by open arrows coloured according to the K-means cluster distribution. Gene names are given below. Black arrows indicate known operon structures.

The graph above shows on the Y-axis the time after pH-shift and on the Z-axis for each time point the expression of the corresponding genes by the M-value. For clarity a region of 13 consecutive genes of the flagellar operon (flgA – fliK) has been omitted. The location of the omitted region is indicated by the orthogonal lines. The ending of a flagellar operon within the omitted region is depicted by a dotted black arrow. Conclusion This Ceramide glucosyltransferase study demonstrates the complexity of the cellular response of S. meliloti to adapt to a new environmental conditions. The mechanism of the cell to face the low pH is a mixture of several distinct reactions which follow a particular order in time. By applying K-means clustering analysis the diversity of different responses of individual genes was reduced to 8 main expression profiles. By this method a reasonable distinction between differently behaving up-regulated and down-regulated genes could be performed. Furthermore, within the obtained clusters, groups of genes with functional relationship were often joined together. Additionally, this analysis revealed that within the first 20 minutes after the shift to acidic pH the cell appears to perform the main changes necessary to adapt to the new environmental circumstances on the transcriptional level. The immediate response of S.

Nano Letters 2010, 10:2323–2329 CrossRef 22 Peng KQ, Huang ZP, Z

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Nanotechnology 2008, 19:255703.CrossRef 26. Schmidt J, Merkle A, Brendel R, Hoex B, BYL719 order van de Sanden MCM, Kessels

WMM: Surface passivation of high-efficiency silicon solar cells by atomic-layer-deposited Al 2 O 3 . Prog Photovoltaics 2008, 16:461–466.CrossRef 27. Agostinelli G, Delabie A, Vitanov P, Alexieva Z, Dekkers HFW, De Wolf Selleck AR-13324 S, Beaucarne G: Very low surface recombination velocities on p-type silicon wafers passivated with a dielectric with fixed negative charge. Sol Energ Mat Sol C 2006, 90:3438–3443.CrossRef 28. Poodt P, Lankhorst A, Roozeboom F, Spee K, Maas D, Vermeer A: High-speed spatial atomic-layer deposition of aluminum oxide layers for solar cell passivation. Adv Mater 2010, 22:3564.CrossRef 29. Saint-Cast P, Benick J, Kania D, Weiss L, Hofmann M, Rentsch J, Preu R, Glunz SW: High-efficiency c-Si solar cells passivated with ALD and PECVD aluminum oxide. IEEE Electr Device L 2010, 31:695–697.CrossRef 30.

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It is not meant that a patient with burn injury should immediatel

It is not meant that a patient with burn injury should immediately be moved to a burn unit. In the case of a burn centre not being able to accept a patient, the initial treatment process can also be conducted in the emergency room (ER) until the transport to the burn

unit takes place. The main criteria for referral to a burn unit include the following [2]: Second and third CSF-1R inhibitor degree burns greater than 10% TBSA in patients younger than 10 years and older than 50 years. Second and third degree burns greater than 20%. Third degree burns greater than 5%. Burns to face, hands, feet, genitalia, perineum and major joints. Electrical burns (including lightning injury) Chemical burns Inhalation injury Patients with pre-existing conditions Circumferential third degree burns to extremity

or chest Burns involving concomitant PF477736 chemical structure trauma with a great risk of morbidity and mortality (i.e. explosion trauma). 2. How to perform the Primary Survey and Secondary Survey? The burn injury itself has a secondary role in the moment of primary survey. Directly on admission Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) guidelines must be performed and the following points must be checked: Airway: Early recognition of airway compromise followed by prompt intubation can be live saving [3]. If there is soot in the mouth consider early intubation even if the patient is breathing normally. Breathing: Determine if the patient is moving air or not. Circulation: Obtain appropriate vascular access and a monitor device to control heart rate and blood pressure. Disability: Detect if there are any other manifestations including fractures and deformities,

abdominal injury or neurological deficit. selleck chemicals Exposure: The patient should be completely exposed and should be out of clothes. Exposure of all orifices must be conducted in this part. Fluid resuscitation: A mainstay in the treatment. This point is discussed in the third question after the calculation of the total burned surface area (%TBSA) but the guidelines of Acute Trauma Life Support (ATLS) should be followed in order to maintain the circulation process. Note that a child is prone to hypothermia due to its high surface to volume ratio and low fat mass. Ambient temperature should be from 28° to 32°C (82° to 90°F). The patient’s core temperature must be kept at least above 34°C. Secondary survey is designed as a burn-specific survey. It is performed during admission to the burn unit. Full history should be approached including: Examination of the cornea is important as well as the ear in case of explosion trauma. A systemic overview should be performed in this phase including a fast run on the abdomen, genital region, lower and upper limbs (think: X-Ray C-Spine, Thorax, and Pelvic). If the patient is a child, look for signs of abuse. Detection of the mechanism of injury. Time of injury. Consideration of abuse [4]. Height and weight.

S Gov’t) PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef 31 Sakoulas G, Eliopoulos

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reduced susceptibility to vancomycin. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2002;46(5):1492–502.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef 32. McDougal LK, Steward CD, Killgore GE, Chaitram JM, McAllister SK, Tenover FC. Pulsed-field LY2606368 clinical trial gel electrophoresis typing of oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates from the United States: establishing a national database. J Clin Microbiol. 2003;41(11):5113–20.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef 33. Tenover FC, Arbeit RD, Goering RV, Mickelsen PA, Murray BE, Persing DH, et al. Selleck Niraparib Interpreting chromosomal

DNA restriction patterns produced by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis: criteria for bacterial strain typing. J Clin Microbiol. 1995;33(9):2233–9.PubMedCentralPubMed 34. Benvenuto M, Benziger DP, Yankelev S, Vigliani G. Pharmacokinetics and tolerability of daptomycin at doses up to 12 milligrams per kilogram of body weight once daily in healthy volunteers. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2006;50(10):3245–9.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef 35. Rose selleck kinase inhibitor WE, Leonard SN, Sakoulas G, Kaatz GW, Zervos MJ, Sheth A, et al. Daptomycin activity against Staphylococcus aureus following vancomycin exposure in an in vitro pharmacodynamic model with simulated endocardial vegetations. Antimicrob Agents Reverse transcriptase Chemother. 2008;52(3):831–6.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef 36. Ludwig F, Edwards B, Lawes T, Gould IM. Effects of storage on vancomycin and daptomycin MIC in susceptible blood isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. J Clin Microbiol. 2012;50(10):3383–7.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef 37. Lee CH, Wang MC, Huang IW, Chen FJ, Lauderdale TL. Development of daptomycin nonsusceptibility with heterogeneous vancomycin-intermediate resistance and oxacillin susceptibility in methicillin-resistant

Staphylococcus aureus during high-dose daptomycin treatment. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2010;54(9):4038–40.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef”
“Erratum to: Infect Dis Ther (2013) 2:27–36 DOI 10.1007/s40121-013-0006-6 The editors of Infectious Diseases and Therapy would like to make the following addition to the Acknowledgments section of the above-mentioned paper. This required wording was unintentionally missed off the original version of the manuscript. “Compliance with Ethics Guidelines: All procedures followed were in accordance with the ethical standards of the responsible committee on human experimentation (institutional and national) and with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, as revised in 2000 and 2008. Informed consent was obtained from all patients for being included in the study.

The value of 0 05 mW was chosen for the exponential growth (“t0 0

The value of 0.05 mW was chosen for the exponential growth (“t0.05” is the time needed to reach this heat flow value) as this value lies within the time period of fully established exponential growth regime for both strains. It corresponds to the thermal activity of 2-5 × 107 bacteria. Figure 3 Graphical representation of the proposed 5 points of interest that could

be utilized as SP600125 mw thermal growth characteristics of the two strains. The parameters and nomenclature proposed for the statistical evaluation of bacterial thermal growth. Table 1 Proposed bacterial microcalorimetric growth parameters for characterizing a raw thermogram Parameter Description t0.015 (h) Time to 0.015 mW heat flow, i.e. thermal growth onset time t0.05 (h) Time to

0.05 mW heat flow, i.e. established exponential growth time t1stMax (h) Time to 1st maximum heat flow, i.e. Selleck PX-478 time to first peak t2ndMax (h) Time to 2nd maximum heat flow, i.e. time to second peak Δt0.015 (h) Time between thermal growth onset and offset HFMax1 (mW) First maximum heat flow, i.e. first peak amplitude HFMax2 (mW) Second maximum heat flow, i.e. second peak amplitude Data analysis on raw (non-normalized) thermograms All thermograms were processed as previously described [7, 16, 17] with baseline and time correction, thus eliminating the initial thermal perturbations and adjusting all experiments to a zero time reference. The baseline was calculated and subsequently subtracted using either Calisto software v1.077 (AKTS) and/or Peakfit v4.12 (SYSTAT). Zero time correction was done in Peakfit using data exported in Excel from Calisto; the final plots were done using the OriginLab Origin v. 8.1 and the Microsoft Excel software. For the statistical analysis we used SPSS 16.0 software

(SPSS, Inc, Chicago, Illinois). Data from 18 runs performed on E. coli and 8 on S. Berzosertib purchase aureus with sample sizes of different volumes were analyzed, as shown in Figure  1. One may easily notice significant qualitative differences between the 2 strains. The Shapiro-Wilk [18] validity test performed on the 2 sets of data indicated a normal distribution for all parameters of E. coli and for 4 out of 7 of S. aureus thermal growth (t0.015, t0.05, Cyclin-dependent kinase 3 Δt0.015, HFMax1). Results are expressed as mean and standard deviation for normally distributed continuous variables (further analyzed by Student t test), or median and minimum/maximum for non-normally distributed variables (analyzed by Mann–Whitney U test). Hypothesis testing was 2-tailed, with P < 0.05 considered statistically significant. The statistical independent t-test [19] (CI = 95%, α = 0.05) and the Mann–Whitney U test performed on the 7 parameters proved that there is a statistically significant difference (with a p value < 0.0001) between the two strains (Table  2).

PCR for VIM, IMP, KPC and NDM-1 genes (self designed, Table 1) wa

PCR for VIM, IMP, KPC and NDM-1 genes (self designed, Table 1) was performed for confirmation. Sequence analysis All isolates found to carry ESBL/ampC or carbapenemase gene were further confirmed by sequencing. Sequencing was performed as per manufacturer’s guidelines in 3130×l genetic analyser (Applied Biosystems, Foster city, California). Further the nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences were analyzed and compared with sequences available in Gene

bank at the National centre of Biotechnology Information (NCBI) web site (http://​www.​ncbi.​nlm.​nih.​gov/​). Results Gut colonization c-Met inhibitor pattern of Enterobacteriaceae and distribution of ESBL and AmpC β -lactamases in Selleck GSK2245840 healthy low birth weight Neonates (1–60 days) On D1, 65.3% of babies were colonized with Enterobacteriaceae with no significant increase on D60. The predominant flora was E. coli on day 1, 21 and 60 followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (Table 2). Table 2 Distribution of Enterobacteriaceae and associated ESBL and AmpC β- lactamases in Neonates   Total Day 1 Day 21 Day 60 (N = 75) (N = 75) (N = 75) No. (%) No. (%) No. (%) Babies colonized with a least one species   49 (65.3) 48 (64) 53 (70.6) No of babies colonized with at least one ESBL producing isolate   7/49 (14.3) 13/48 (27.1) 22/53 (41.5)* Total Enterobacteriaceae

strains # 267 79 88 100 E.coli 219 69 (87.3) 67 (76.1) 83 (83) Klebsiella pneumoniae 27 3 (3.8) 13 (14.8) 11 (11) Enterobacter sp 14 2 (2.5) 7 (8) 5 (5) Citrobacter Methane monooxygenase sp 5 4 (5.1) 0 1 (1) Salmonella. Typhi 2 1 (1.3) 1(1.1) AZD2171 mouse 0 Total ESBL 55 (20.6) 7 (8.9) 17 (19.3) 31 (31)** Total AmpC (N = 39) 53 (19.9) 16 (20.3) 12 (13.6) 25 (25)*** Co-Production of ESBL and AmpC 30 (11.2) 5 (6.3) 9 (10.2) 16 (16)**** Note: Data represents

Enterobacteriaceae isolates from gut of 75 healthy Low birth weight (LBW) neonates on Day 1, 21, 60 of birth. All Figures in parentheses represent percentages. # Some babies had more than one morphologically and biochemically distinct isolates. *p value 0.005 **p value 0.001 ***p value 0.2 ****p value 0.05 when compared to Day 1. Overall ESBL and AmpC production was 20.6% and 19.9% respectively. The total isolates positive for either AmpC and or ESBL were 29.2% (78/267). The predominant phenotypes were co-producers (30/267, 11.23%), followed by only ESBL (25/267, 9.4%) and AmpC (23/267, 8.6%) isolates. Both no. of babies colonized with at least one ESBL producing isolate and ESBL rate amongst Enterobacteriaceae increased three fold (p value 0.005 and 0.001 respectively) from day 1 to day 60, irrespective of associated AmpC production (Table 2). Characteristics of ESBL and AmpC β – lactamases in Enterobacteriaceae isolates from 27 randomly selected neonates The three stool samples from 27 neonates generated 88 gram negative bacilli which included E.