The present study suggests the possibility of venereal transmissi

The present study suggests the possibility of venereal transmission of T gondii among goats and it should be further assessed.”
“The striped bass, Morone EPZ004777 cell line saxatilis (Walbaum), once represented

an important resource for fisheries in the St Lawrence River (Quebec, Canada). A restoration programme, involving captive propagation, was implemented with the objective of restocking the population, which had disappeared in the late 1960s. An unusually high rate of mortality was observed during the winter of 2006 in captive-raised fingerlings that were originally collected from the Miramichi River (New Brunswick, Canada) the previous summer. Post-mortem examinations revealed extensive granulomatous and hyperplastic peritonitis associated Dorsomorphin purchase with numerous nematodes of the genus Philometra. Given the severity of the lesions, high intensity of infection by Philometra sp. was presumed to be the primary factor in the unusual mortalities reported that winter. Observations suggest that this nematode, which was acquired in the wild, cannot establish itself in a captive environment, most likely because of the absence of the obligate intermediate host. Examination of archived specimens of striped

bass showed that this parasite was probably present in the St Lawrence River population prior to its extirpation. Consequently, the introduction of infected fish into this ecosystem should not be a concern. Nevertheless, infection-related mortalities of fingerlings might affect dynamics of wild striped bass populations.”
“The objective of this study was to analyze the financial implications of the implementation of new institutional practice guidelines including greater outpatient care and earlier operative intervention in a provincial burn center. A retrospective review was performed including all patients

admitted to the Burn Unit with burns up to 20% TBSA between August 2005 and July 2009, including 2 years before and after the new guidelines were find more introduced. Daily costs for the burn unit were used to calculate this portion of cost. Length of stay (LOS) was based on actual data and representative clinical scenarios. Two hundred sixty-four patients were included. Mean LOS decreased from 10.3 to 3.9 (P < .01) and 21.0 to 13.3 (P > .05) for nonoperative burns 0 to 10% and 10 to 20% TBSA, respectively. Mean LOS for operative burns decreased from 16.6 to 12.9 and 32.3 to 29.8 days for 0 to 10% and 10 to 20% TBSA, respectively (P > .05). Burn patient management requires significant financial resources, and LOS has a large impact on cost. Given per diem rates of Can$1,663, scenario analysis shows potential cost savings of Can$19,956 per patient for operative and nonoperative burns <20% TBSA. With an average of 66 such patients treated each year, potential annual cost savings are Can$1.3 million.

004) and inhibitory control (both p<0 010) There were, howeve

004) and inhibitory control (both p<0.010). There were, however, no differences between the two NF1 groups in spatial working memory (p=0.91) or response inhibition (p=0.78). Interpretation Executive dysfunction occurs with the BMS-777607 chemical structure same severity in children with NF1, whether or not they have a comorbid diagnosis of ADHD, suggesting

that executive impairments are not unique contributors to ADHD symptomatology in NF1. The findings are discussed within the context of recent evidence in Nf1 optic glioma (OPG) mice, in which a mechanistic connection between NF1 gene expression, executive system failure, and dopaminergic pathway integrity has been established.”
“Background: Immune dysfunction is very common in diabetes mellitus (DM). However, there is no evidence whether such immune dysfunction can influence the development of DM, especially the development of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Aim: To investigate the influence of absence

of T cells on DN. Materials and Methods: Balb/c nude mice and Balb/c wild-type nude (WT) mice were injected with streptozotocin (STZ). Serum tumor necrosis factor a (TNF-alpha), blood glucose, body weight, urine albumin/creatinine ratio and rate of kidney weight to body weight (KW/BW) were measured. Results: After modeling, there was no difference of blood glucose level between nude mice and WT mice except at week 2 (28.3 +/- 4.9 mmol/l vs 23.1 +/- 3.9 mmol/l, p smaller than 0.01). At week 4, the serum TNF-alpha level of nude mice got to 175.08 +/- 46.03 pg/ml (p smaller than 0.05, compared with baseline level 80.19 +/- Nepicastat concentration 8.46 pg/ml), whereas the TNF-alpha levels

of WT mice was stable. At week 4, the body weight of nude mice was lower than that of WT mice (14.7 +/- 3.15 g vs 17.97 +/- 2.85 CA4P solubility dmso g, p smaller than 0.05); the urine albumin/creatinine ratio (Alb/Cr) of nude mice was higher than that of WT mice (50.96 +/- 5.57 mg/mmol vs 41.09 +/- 5.79 mg/mmol, p smaller than 0.05); the kidney weight to body weight of nude mice was higher than that of WT mice (0.01352 +/- 0.00163 vs 0.01173 +/- 0.00131, p smaller than 0.05). Correlation analysis showed urine Alb/Cr positively correlated with serum TNF-a level at week 4 (r=0.588, p smaller than 0.01). At week 4, the increase of type IV collagen in the glomeruli was more prominent in diabetic nude mice than in diabetic WT mice (p smaller than 0.05). Conclusions: Absence of T cells in DM might influence the development of DN. (J. Endocrinol. Invest. 36: 938-943, 2013) (C) Editrice Kurtis”
“There have recently been significant increases in the prevalence of systemic invasive fungal infections. However, the number of antifungal drugs on the market is limited in comparison to the number of available antibacterial drugs. This fact, coupled with the increased frequency of cross-resistance, makes it necessary to develop new therapeutic strategies.

“Polymethyl-methacrylate (PMMA) as part of bone cement is

“Polymethyl-methacrylate (PMMA) as part of bone cement is a widely used material in the context of orthopaedic implants and also in cranioplasty Although PMMA is characterised by excellent biocompatibility with low intrinsic toxicity and inflammatory activation a minor portion of patients develop allergic reactions We present the case of a 39-year-old woman with an increasing headache and a

corresponding erythema over the parieto-occipital cranioplasty which was performed 42 days prior using a PMMA compound A patch test specific for bone cement components confirmed the diagnosis of a PMMA delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction The prevalence of allergic reactions to bone cement components are known to vary from between 06% and 1 6% however no adequate, pre-interventional diagnostic tool is currently available Therefore physicians are required to consider this differential diagnosis

SCH 900776 purchase STI571 molecular weight even after an extremely delayed onset of symptoms This case describes the first ever-reported case in the literature of hypersensitivity to bone cement cranioplasty (C) 2010 Elsevier B V All rights reserved”
“Over the last decades, agricultural land-use practices have been intensified throughout Europe. As a consequence of the resulting loss of habitat heterogeneity, numerous species associated with traditional farmland have undergone severe population declines. To mitigate the negative effects of intensive agriculture on farmland biodiversity, agri-environment schemes (AES) have been adopted in various European countries since the early 1990s. The effects of AES have been evaluated for different taxa, but rarely for larger mammals like the brown hare (Lepus europaeus), a characteristic species of traditional

open farmland.\n\nUsing spotlight counts from 58 brown hare monitoring study sites over 17 years, we analysed the effects of land-use and several agri-environment scheme options on brown hare density in the Swiss lowland. We used open-population binomial mixture models to jointly model abundance and detection probability, thereby accounting for imperfect detection of hares.\n\nMean observed counts of brown hares in Switzerland from 1992 to 2008 suggested a slight GS-9973 datasheet decline followed by a recovery in arable study sites, whereas a sustained decline was apparent in grassland sites. Mean detection probability ranged widely from year to year (arable: 0.33-0.70: grassland: 0.21-0.80). When accounting for imperfect detection, a population recovery was apparent in both land-use types, although hare densities remained at low levels compared to other European countries.\n\nThe amount of extensively managed hay meadows seemed to have a positive effect on brown hare abundance both in arable and grassland sites.

Subsequent analyses revealed that the similarity in gene expressi

Subsequent analyses revealed that the similarity in gene expression levels of the Myc module between these two cell types was not just overall, but striking similarities were evident even when comparing the expression of individual genes. We also observed equivalent levels of similarity in the expression of individual Myc module genes between induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs)

and partial iPSCs that are an unwanted byproduct generated during iPSC induction. Moreover, our data demonstrate that partial iPSCs depend on a high level of c-Myc expression for Pfizer Licensed Compound Library concentration their self-renewal properties.”
“Experimental results have shown that palladium complexes with chelating aryl- and alkyl-substituted bis-NHC ligands, including [(H3C-Im)(2)CH2]PdBr2, [(C6H5-Im)(2)CH2]PdBr2, and [(H3CO-C6H4-Im)(2)CH2]PdBr2 are excellent catalysts for the MizorokiHeck reaction. To better understand and improve the catalysts, a density functional theory (DFT) study of the Heck reaction has been performed at the B3LYP/6-31G*

level of theory, complemented by M06/def2-TZVP single-point calculations. Different mechanistic pathways have been investigated and compared to available experimental results. The most likely mechanism is a cationic catalytic cycle involving the palladium oxidation states 0 and +II. We also looked at other oxidation states, but on the basis of the calculated Gibbs free energy a +II/+IV mechanism can be excluded. Aryl substitution with electron-donating groups at the para position (e.g., the methoxy group in [(H3CO-C(6)H(4)Im)(2)CH2]PdBr2) AZD5582 datasheet was found to reduce the reaction barrier of the rate-determining step. This is in agreement with the experimental findings for the catalysts. The experimentally observed cis selectivity could also be explained by the DFT study.”
“The objective of this

study was to compare the effects of Aspergillus niger-fermented pine needles and nonfermented pine needles on growth performance and antioxidant capacity in broiler chicks. In total, 300 1-day-old broiler chicks were randomly allocated to 5 dietary treatments, which were then denoted as the control treatment (basal diet); the nonfermented treatment (containing 0.3% and 0.6% nonfermented treatment, respectively, in the starter and grower phase); or the fermented 1, fermented 2, or fermented 3 treatments. The fermented 1, fermented 2, and fermented 3 treatments contained 0.1, 0.3, and 0.5% fermented treatment, respectively, in the starter phase and 0.2, 0.6, and 1.0% fermented treatment, respectively, in the growth phase for 42 d. The results showed that fermentation treated supplementation had no adverse effect on the growth performance of broilers at 42 d of age. The activity of total nitric oxide synthase was significantly (P smaller than 0.

Results There were no behavioral differences between groups OSU

Results There were no behavioral differences between groups. OSU showed attenuated activation across risky and safe decisions in prefrontal cortex, insula, and dorsal striatum, exhibited lower anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and dorsal striatum activation for risky decisions and greater inferior frontal gyrus activation for safe decisions. Those OSU with relatively more stimulant use showed greater dorsal ACC and posterior insula attenuation. In comparison, greater lifetime marijuana

use was associated with less neural differentiation between risky and safe decisions. OSU who chose more safe responses after losses exhibited similarities with CS relative to those preferring risky options. Discussion Individuals at risk for the development of stimulant use disorders presented less differentiated neural processing of selleck chemicals AZD9291 manufacturer risky and safe options. Specifically, OSU show attenuated brain response in regions critical for performance monitoring, reward processing and interoceptive awareness. Marijuana had additive effects by diminishing neural risk differentiation.”
“Background: The objectives of the study were to assess feasibility, continuation rates and patient satisfaction with self-administration of subcutaneous depot medroxyprogesterone acetate

(DMPA-SC).\n\nMaterials this website and Methods: The study included 50 DMPA-seeking women between the ages of 18 and 49 years enrolled at two Florida Planned Parenthood health centers. Participants were taught self-injection during their initial

study visit and, upon proficiency, self-injected one dose in clinic. Participants then injected a series of three more doses outside the health center over 9 months. Continuation rates, feasibility and acceptability were determined by analysis of four postinjection surveys.\n\nResults: Continuation of DMPA-SC at injection 4 was 74% (95% confidence interval 62%-86%). Overall, survey responses from the three at-home injections indicated the method to be convenient (95%), easy (87%) and recommendable to others (94%). Twenty percent of injections were met with difficulty, most commonly cited as plunger resistance. No pregnancies occurred in study.\n\nConclusions: Continuation was high with DMPA-SC self-injection. Participants reported injection to be easy and convenient and are likely to recommend self-administration to other women. Device issues are one potential deterrent. (C) 2012 Elsevier Inc. All right; reserved.”
“Cyclin-dependent kinases from the Cdk5/Pho85 family are thought to play important roles in morphogenesis in species as diverse as yeast and humans.

The results revealed that similar synaptic actions were evoked fr

The results revealed that similar synaptic actions were evoked from the ipsilateral and contralateral PTs, including disynaptic and trisynaptic YAP-TEAD Inhibitor 1 purchase EPSPs and trisynaptic IPSPs. Stimulation of the MLF-evoked monosynaptic and disynaptic EPSPs and

disynaptic or trisynaptic IPSPs in the same motoneurons. All short-latency PSPs of PT origin were abolished by transection of the MLF, while they remained after transection of PT fibers at a spinal level. Hence, RS neurons might serve as the main relay neurons of the most direct PT actions on musculus ( m.) longissimus. However, longer-latency IPSPs remaining after MLF or PT spinal lesions and after ipsilateral or contralateral hemisection of spinal cord Navitoclax indicate that

PT actions are also mediated by ipsilaterally and/or contralaterally located spinal interneurons. The bilateral effects of PT stimulation thereby provide an explanation why trunk movements after unilateral injuries of PT neurons (e.g., stroke) are impaired to a lesser degree than movements of the extremities.”
“Pancreatic adenocarcinoma carries a dismal prognosis and remains a significant cause of cancer morbidity and mortality. Most patients survive less than 1 year; chemotherapeutic options prolong life minimally. The best chance for long-term survival is complete resection, which offers a 3-year survival of only 15%. Most patients who do undergo resection will go on to die of their disease. Research in chemotherapy for metastatic disease has made only modest progress and the standard of care remains the purine analog gemcitabine. For resectable pancreatic

cancer, presumed micrometastases provide the rationale for adjuvant chemotherapy and chemoradiation (CRT) to supplement surgical management. Numerous randomized control trials, none definitive, of adjuvant chemotherapy and CRT have been conducted and are summarized in this review, along with recent developments in how unresectable disease can be subcategorized according to the potential for eventual curative resection. This review will also emphasize palliative care and discuss some avenues of research that show early promise.”
“OBJECTIVE: To SHP099 mouse describe the first case of bortezomib-induced capillary leak syndrome (CLS), a rare but potentially life-threatening condition characterized by the shift of intravascular fluid and protein to the interstitial space.\n\nCASE SUMMARY: A 65-year-old female with relapsed multiple myeloma developed fluid retention, ascites, and general anasarca following bortezomib administration (1.3 mg/m(2) on days 1, 4, 8, and 11). Aggressive albumin infusion and loop diuretics did not lead to improvement and the patient received 2 sessions of hemodialysis for pulmonary edema. Although the bortezomib dose was reduced (0.

This compartment likely contains CSCs since it

is express

This compartment likely contains CSCs since it

is expressing the putative CSC markers CD44, ALDH1 and CK14. This cell layer therefore should be considered a major therapeutic target in the treatment of head and neck cancer. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Purpose: To prospectively evaluate the clinical effectiveness of snapshot inversion recovery (SNAPIR), which is a dedicated optimized inversion-recovery-prepared single-shot fast BTSA1 Apoptosis inhibitor spin-echo T1-weighted sequence, in the delineation of normal fetal brain anatomy compared with that of the currently used T1-weighted gradient-echo protocol, which often yields images of poor quality due to motion artifacts and inadequate contrast.\n\nMaterials and Methods: This study was approved by the hospital research ethics committee,

and informed written consent was obtained from all patients. Forty-one fetuses were examined at 19-37 weeks gestation (mean, 29 weeks gestation) by using both the standard T1-weighted protocol and the optimized T1-weighted SNAPIR protocol with a 1.5-T Apoptosis inhibitor imager. Two independent blinded observers performed qualitative analysis, evaluating overall diagnostic quality, detailed anatomic delineation, and severity of motion artifacts. Quantitative analysis comprised calculation of contrast ratios (CRs) for the cortical gray matter, subplate, white matter, and cerebrospinal fluid. The Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to compare image rating scores, the paired t test was used to compare CRs, and kappa statistics were used to test interobserver agreement.\n\nResults: Both overall diagnostic quality (P < .001) and detailed anatomic delineation (P < .001) were enhanced with SNAPIR compared with the standard T1-weighted acquisition. Also, motion artifacts were

less severe (P = .008) and less extensive (P < .001) with SNAPIR. Corresponding CRs were increased with SNAPIR in seven of eight examined regions.\n\nConclusion: SNAPIR is a promising robust alternative to the current T1-weighted acquisitions; its role in the detection of disease requires further study. (C) RSNA, 2010″
“Background: Guidelines recommend evaluation of cardiac function, valvular and ischemic heart disease, and thyroid, kidney, and liver function on initial diagnosis of atrial fibrillation (AF). Hypothesis: We hypothesized that initial workup of patients with newly identified AF would vary by age, sex, and burden of comorbid illness. Methods: In a retrospective analysis of a large sample of commercially insured patients 18 to 64 years old (n = 40 245) and a nationally representative 5% cohort of Medicare beneficiaries 65 years or older (n = 204 676), we measured claims for guideline-recommended services for initial evaluation of AF among patients with a new diagnosis between 2000 and 2008.

Results:The MRI could diagnose correctly 10 cases of hydr

\n\nResults:\n\nThe MRI could diagnose correctly 10 cases of hydronephrosis, one case of polycystic kidney disease (PCKD), one case of RA, two normal case and two cases of intra-abdominal masses (IA Mass) (16 of 18 cases). The prenatal ultrasound could diagnose correctly eight cases of hydronephrosis, Selleckchem GDC 973 one case of PCKD, one case of renal agenesis, one case of multicystic kidney disease and one case of IA Mass (12 of 18 cases). The prenatal ultrasound and MRI gave different diagnoses in eight cases and gave the same diagnosis in 12 cases. The MRI could diagnose the aetiology of congenital renal cysts in 10 of the 20 studied cases (50%).\n\nConclusion:\n\nMagnetic resonance imaging

can be used as a complementary tool in the assessment of sonographically suspected fetal renal anomalies.”
“Background: Various amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) subtypes have been identified as single domain (SD) or multiple domain (MD), with differential probabilities of progression to Alzheimer disease (AD). Detecting the differences in the alterations in gray matter (GM) and intrinsic brain activity between

the subtypes of aMCI help to understand their pathophysiological mechanisms and was conducive to construct such potential biomarkers to monitor the progression of aMCI. Methods: In all, 22 normal controls (NCs), 18 patients with SD-aMCI, and 17 patients with MD-aMCI participated in the study. The amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFFs) during rest represented intrinsic brain activity. Voxel-based Pitavastatin clinical trial morphometry analysis was used to measure the GM volume. Results: The MD-aMCI showed reduced GM in hippocampus (Hip), parahippocampal gyrus (PHG), and other regions than SD-aMCI. The SD-aMCI had reduced GM only in Hip and PHG than in NC. The MD-aMCI showed decreased ALFF in posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and precuneus and increased ALFF

in selleck products anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), PHG, and Hip compared with both SD-aMCI and NC. However, no ALFF difference was found between SD-aMCI and NC. Neuropsychological measures were correlated with ALFF in PCC and ACC only in the MD-aMCI. Conclusions: Patients with MD-aMCI displayed more severe GM atrophy and ALFF changes than patients with SD-aMCI. The results suggested that aMCI is heterogeneous and that MD-aMCI may be a prodromal stage which is more close to AD.”
“Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a frequently occurring disease in young people, which is characterized by chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. The therapy of IBD is dominated by the administration of anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive agents, which suppress the intestinal inflammatory burden and improve the disease-related symptoms. Present treatment strategies are characterized by a limited therapeutical efficacy and the occurrence of adverse drug reactions.

The deposition of the aerosol was evaluated in the nasal delivery

The deposition of the aerosol was evaluated in the nasal delivery components (ventilator tubing and cannula) and an in vitro adult nose-mouth-throat (NMT) model using 3 realistic breathing profiles. RESULTS: Significant improvements in dose delivered

to the exit of the NMT model (ex-NMT) were observed for both condensational growth methods using intermittent aerosol delivery compared with continuous delivery, and increasing the tidal volume was found useful. The combination of the largest tidal volume with the shortest intermittent Vadimezan mw delivery time resulted in the lowest respiration losses and the highest ex-NMT delivered dose. CONCLUSIONS: Intermittent aerosol delivery using realistic breathing profiles of submicrometer condensational growth aerosols was found to be efficient in delivering nasally administered drugs in an in vitro airway model.”
“The first synthesis of 7,8-dihydroxy-1-methylnaphtho[2,3-c]furan-4,9-dione (1), an isofuranonaphthoquinone produced by an Actinoplanes strain is described. Lactone ring opening of 6-methylfuro [3,4-c]furan-1(3H)-one BEZ235 molecular weight (4) with ortho-lithiated veratrole (3), oxidation of product alcohol 5, and Friedel-Crafts acylation of the resulting aroylcarboxylic acid 7 afforded the mono methyl

ether 2 of the target compound. The latter was obtained by demethylation of 2 with BBr(3) in 14% overall yield. While mono ether 2 was distinctly more cytotoxic than catechol 1 against a panel of five

cancer cell lines, only the latter showed a siderophore-like binding affinity for Fe(III) with a complex dissociation constant K(D) of approximately 10(-29) M(3) (pM = 25.9). (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background and Purpose-Quantification of early ischemic see more changes (EIC) may predict functional outcome in patients with basilar artery occlusion (BAO). We tested the validity of a novel CT score, the posterior circulation Acute Stroke Prognosis Early CT score (pc-ASPECTS).\n\nMethods-Pc-ASPECTS allots the posterior circulation 10 points. Two points each are subtracted for EIC in midbrain or pons and 1 point each for EIC in left or right thalamus, cerebellum or PCA-territory, respectively. We studied 2 different populations: (1) patients with suspected vertebrobasilar ischemia and (2) patients with BAO. We applied pc-ASPECTS to noncontrast CT (NCCT), CT angiography source images (CTASI), and follow-up image by 3-reader consensus. We calculated sensitivity for ischemic changes and analyzed the predictivity of pc-ASPECTS for independent (modified Rankin Scale [mRS] score <= 2) and favorable (mRS score <= 3) outcome.\n\nResults-Of 130 patients with suspected vertebrobasilar ischemia, 72% ( 94) had posterior circulation stroke, 8% ( 10) transient ischemic attack, and 20% (26) nonischemic etiology.

Statistical analyses indicated a significant increase in the freq

Statistical analyses indicated a significant increase in the frequency of vessel elements and an increase in fiber-tracheid diameters in OPS individuals. These characteristics are considered structural adaptations to increased water needs caused by a greater exposure to sunlight. Continuous pruning may be responsible for the tyloses observed in OPS plants. The greater lengths and higher frequencies of the rays in SSCS trees may be due to the S3I-201 ic50 greater diameters of their branches.

Our results suggest that M. glabra develops structural adaptations to the restinga micro-environmental variations during its development.”
“We report on the case of a 38-year-old male patient with a huge extramural gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST) of the stomach, located in the left upper and middle

abdominal cavity that was diagnosed on the basis of a spontaneous rupture and consecutive haemoperitoneum. The lesion was resected completely in an emergency operation. The tumour was classified as a high-risk lesion for aggressive biological behaviour and with regard to tumour rupture with perforation of the serosa, an adjuvant systemic therapy was indicated.”
“Neck pain is a common health problem that restricts activities GNS-1480 inhibitor of daily living. The Neck Disability Index (NDI) was developed to assess disability in patients with neck pain. check details The normative score and the cut-off value are mandatory to assess an individual patient or a certain patient group for clinically important neck pain with disability, by distinguishing it from nonsignificant pain. The objective of the present study was to determine the normative

score and the cut-off value of the NDI.\n\nA total of 1,200 participants who registered with an internet research company were interviewed on the website about their episodes of neck pain during the previous 4 weeks, and completed the online NDI questionnaire. If the participants reported neck pain, they were also asked about the disability in activity of daily living it caused, and the presence of associated symptoms in upper limbs. Disability was defined according to the consensus study on the standardization of back pain definitions. The normative score was determined by calculating the mean in the participants, and the cut-off value was determined by the receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis.\n\nThe prevalence of neck pain was 37.8 %. Demographic data of the participants also indicated that they were representative of the normal population in Japan. The mean score was 6.98, and the median was 2. The NDI score was higher in middle age, and at its peak in the 50s age group (50-59 years of age). The female mean was significantly higher.