(C) 2011 Elsevier Inc All rights reserved “

(C) 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial packaging is a novel food packaging technology for controlling the growth of food-borne

pathogens or spoilage bacteria in ready-to-eat food products. Fresh fish are highly perishable foodstuffs and are extremely susceptible to microbial activities. An alginate-calcium coating incorporating nisin and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) was used as an antimicrobial packaging to maintain the quality of northern snakehead (Channa argus) at refrigeration temperature (4 +/- 1 degrees C). Northern snakehead fillets were left untreated (CK), or were treated with 1000 IU mL(-1) nisin and 150 mu g mL(-1) EDTA (T1), alginate- calcium coating (T2), or alginate-calcium coating incorporating 1000 IU Selleckchem AZD6738 mL(-1) nisin and 150 mu g mL(-1) EDTA (T3).\n\nRESULTS: All treatments retarded the decay of the fish fillets. T1 more efficiently inhibited the growth of total viable mesophilic bacteria (P < 0.05) and total psychrophilic bacteria (P > 0.05) than did T2 or T3. Coating treatments predominantly

reduced chemical spoilage, reflected in total volatile base nitrogen (P > 0.05), Autophagy inhibitor purchase trimethylamine (P > 0.05), pH (P < 0.05), and thiobarbituric acid (P < 0.05), retarded water loss (P < 0.05), and increased the overall sensory scores of fish fillets [P < 0.05) compared with those of T1. There was no significant difference between the coating treatments T2 and T3 (P > 0.05).\n\nCONCLUSION: Alginate-calcium coating treatments efficiently

enhanced the quality of northern snakehead fillets during storage. (C) 2009 Society of Chemical Industry”
“1. Abiotic stress and interactions with neighbours are major selective forces but their relative importance for local adaptation has rarely been separated. Plant community theory predicts AZD1152 concentration increasing importance of competition with decreasing stress. We experimentally separated the role of neighbours and drought stress for local adaptation of two annual plant species. We predicted that neighbours amplify patterns of local adaptation with adaptation to competition prevailing in benign habitats.\n\n2. During one growing season, we combined reciprocal transplants with neighbour removals along a gradient of more than an eightfold increase in annual rainfall using populations from sites representative of Arid, Semi-arid, Mediterranean and Mesic Mediterranean ecosystems. We evaluated statistical interactions between origin and planting site with and without neighbours and quantified plant-plant interaction importance.\n\n3. An extreme drought (<63% of the average annual rainfall at the arid sites) reduced the probability of detecting neighbour effects. There was weak but non-significant evidence for local adaptation and for the amplification of adaptation patterns with neighbours for populations from wetter sites of the two species.

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