ANA-3 TTTTTTAT Congregibacter litoralis

ANA-3 TTTTTTAT Congregibacter litoralis STI571 supplier KT71 TTTTTTAT Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli AAC00-1 TTTTTCAT Delftia acidovorans SPH-1 TTTTTCAT Comamonas testosteroni KF-1 TTTTTCAT Pseudomonas aeruginosa 2192 TTTTTTAT Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA7 TTTTTTGT Stenotrophomonas maltophilia K279a TTTTTTGT Pseudomonas aeruginosa selleck PACS171b TTTTTTAT Diaphorobacter sp. TPSY TTTTTCAT Delftia acidovorans SPH-1 TTTTTCAT Acidovorax sp. JS42 NP Bordetella petrii DSM12804 NP Thioalkalivibrio sp. HL-EbGR7 NP Burkholderia pseudomallei MSHR346 NP Polaromonas naphthalenivorans CJ2 plasmid pPNAP01 NP Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14 NP

NP, Not Present Figure 7 A) Schematic representation of Tn 4371 excision and insertion into the R. pickettii chromosome. Primer LE1 and RE1 check details are the primers for detection of the circular form of the element. B) Agarose gel of attP of ICETn4371 6043 and ICETn4371 6044. Lanes M contains 200-10000 bp molecular size markers (Bioline Hyperladder I), Lane 1 ULM001, Lane2 ULM002, Lane

3 ULM006. Conclusion Tn4371-like ICEs are found in a wide range of γ-proteobacteria and β-proteobacteria from both clinical and environmental sources. These types of bacteria are known for their large metabolic repertoires and these elements could potentially be a source of acquisition of adaptive functions for these organisms. The discovery of the Tn4371-like ICEs in the P. aeruginosa strains, S. maltophilia K279a and B. pseudomallei MSHR346 are the first reports of these elements found in human pathogens. This along with the discovery of putative antibiotic resistance genes in their genomes indicates that these elements may have an impact in clinical situations. The discovery and characterisation of novel Tn4371-like elements as reported here adds

significantly to the repertoire cAMP of such elements and helps define the core scaffold of such elements. It is clear that these elements are highly adaptable and may contribute significantly to the metabolic capabilities of their host. This study increases the knowledge available about these elements adding data on eighteen new elements to the five already known. A new nomenclature system for Tn 4371-like elements was designed to avoid confusion in the naming of these elements. The primer system used to detect and characterise the Tn4371-like ICEs in Ralstonia pickettii ULM001 and ULM003 could be adapted and used for other bacterial species for the rapid screening of such elements. Methods Bacterial strains and growth conditions The strains used in this study are shown in Table 5. All the strains were stored at -20°C in Nutrient Broth [Biolab, Budapest, Hungary] with 50% glycerol. Isolates were grown aerobically on Nutrient Agar [Biolab, Budapest, Hungary] and incubated overnight at 30°C. Table 5 Ralstonia Strains used in this work Strain Source R. pickettii JCM5969, NCTC11149, DSM6297, CIP73.23 CCUG3318 Culture Collections R. pickettii CCM2846 CCUG18841 Culture Collections R.insidiosa ATCC4199 Culture Collection R.

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