4)-gamma-catalyst and HRTEM examination on the sulfided catalysts showed a decrease for the average stacking number and CH5183284 for the average length of WS2 particles with the gallium content. Moreover, change of the promoter
(Ni2+) interaction with the support was induced by the affinity of gallium (at low loadings) to the tetrahedral sites of alumina, inducing an increase of the octahedral species of Ni in the oxidic state of the catalysts as evidenced from UV-vis and to a higher amount of the NiWS mixed phase in the sulfided samples as deduced from XPS analysis. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Homogeneous and patchy inputs of inorganic and organic nitrogen (N) are common in grazed grasslands, but little is known about the interactions between spatial pattern and form of N inputs for plant and soil processes. Understanding coupled plant and soil responses to heterogeneous N inputs is a critical step towards the improved prediction of field-scale ecosystem function. We compared impacts of uniform and patchy N addition on plant and soil properties using three N forms of increasing complexity (inorganic N; a simple amino acid, glycine; a complex protein, BSA) in an in situ grassland experiment. One month after N addition, patchy N treatments increased plant production but
decreased biomass produced per gram nitrogen (a proxy of N use efficiency) compared with uniform N treatments. Contrary to expectations, plant production showed limited differences among N
form treatments. However, microbial biomass and dissolved organic HIF inhibitor carbon showed significant N form x pattern interactions, with strongest responses to patchy inputs of complex organic N. Irrespective of N form, plant responses to patchy N inputs occurred over a larger spatial area than soil microbe responses, consistent with optimal foraging by plant roots. Unlike plants, microbial responses to patchy N inputs were still observed after six months. Overall, our results indicate that patchy inputs of N promote the uncoupling of SB525334 in vivo plant and soil properties, with greatest differences observed for complex organic N inputs. The spatial and temporal asynchrony between plant production and microbial biomass observed may have significant implications for the competitive balance of plants and soil microbes in space, as well as for plant soil feedbacks involved with the regulation of biogeochemical cycling. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background: The standard clinical protocol of image-guided IMRT for prostate carcinoma introduces isocenter relocation to restore the conformity of the multi-leaf collimator (MLC) segments to the target as seen in the cone-beam CT on the day of treatment. The large interfractional deformations of the clinical target volume (CTV) still require introduction of safety margins which leads to undesirably high rectum toxicity.