5a, b). Mice treated with Lr1505 or Lc431 had significantly higher macrophage and neutrophil PI3K inhibitor counts than
did the control group (Fig. 5a, b). We also observed increased concentrations of TNF-α and IFN-γ in the respiratory tract after challenge with pathogenic yeast in all experimental groups (Fig. 5a, b). However, in the groups receiving Lc431 or Lr1505 the concentrations of both cytokines were significantly higher than in the control group (Fig. 5c,d). Several studies have reported beneficial effects of probiotic bacteria and products containing these microorganisms on intestinal health. In the present study, we observed that oral administration of Lc431, Lr1505 and Lr1506 stimulates production of TNF-α and IFN-γ in the intestine. This is in line with other studies showing Maraviroc cost that, of the cytokines induced by immunomodulatory LAB, the most remarkable
effect is the increase in TNF-α, IFN-γ, and the regulatory cytokine IL-10 in all probiotic strains assayed (16). In addition, that TNF-α and IFN-γ are both reportedly produced by antigen presenting cells (17). Therefore, our results indicate that the three lactobacilli strains evaluated in this study are able to stimulate macrophages and dendritic cells in the gut. In addition, we observed a strain-dependent difference in the concentrations of TNF-α and IFN-γ after Lc431, Lr1505 PD184352 (CI-1040) or Lr1506 treatments. This effect has been also observed by other authors who have reported strain-dependent differences in the number of gut TNF-α+
and IFN-γ+ cells after oral administration of Lactobacillus strains (18). Local activation of the gut immune system induced by Lc431, Lr1505 and Lr1506 would explain the improved resistance of treated mice to oral challenge with the intestinal pathogen Salmonella typhimurium (12, 15). We were particularly interested in the effect of lactobacilli strains beyond the intestinal tract. It is known that the gut immune system is anatomically connected to the systemic immune system by the lymphatic and blood circulation. Therefore, immune responses induced in the small intestine can spread through the systemic immune system and reach mucosal and non-mucosal sites (19). Thus, in the present study, we simultaneously studied the effects of oral administration of Lactobacillus strains on sites distant from the gastrointestinal tract by assessing macrophage activity in the peritoneal and alveolar compartments. We found that activation of macrophages at sites distant to the gastrointestinal tract is dependent on the strain of LAB employed. We also demonstrated that the stimulatory effects of the LAB are related to the ability of each strain to influence profiles of mucosal and systemic cytokines. Interaction of macrophages with microorganisms often results in phagocytosis.