Among these mechanisms, heavy metal efflux systems have been well

Among these mechanisms, heavy metal efflux systems have been well-studied [12]. The efflux-mediated mechanism is EPZ015938 basically a plasmid-encoded mechanism involving many operons

such as czcD, chrB, nccA and so on, in which toxic ions enter the cell via active transport (an ATPase pump) or diffusion (a chemiosmotic ion or proton pump) [12, 13]. However, this metal resistance ability is a direct response to the metal species concerned, and consequently, a particular organism may directly and/or indirectly rely on several survival strategies [11]. As a result, microorganisms are viewed as tools for the treatment of wastewater in biological processes, which have demonstrated their advantages over physico-chemical processes. Despite the fact that several microorganisms are known to participate in the detoxification process of wastewater systems and successfully used in the production of effluent of high quality [8], the ability of protozoan species in terms of resistance to and the bioremoval of heavy metals have not been fully documented [14–16]. For decades, protozoan species have been reported as biological

indicators of water quality and pollution rather than metal resistant species due to the sensitivity of certain protozoan species to the pollutants such as heavy metals Lazertinib manufacturer [17]. As a dominant form of

life on earth 1.5 billion years ago and having survived to the present day in unicellular form [18, 19], protozoan species have undeniably passed through considerable challenges and evolutionary change and can also possess the potential to resist and remove heavy metals from wastewater. No specific studies have assessed the resistance of Peranema sp., Trachelophyllum sp. and Aspidisca sp. to highly polluted industrial wastewater systems. Due to the fact that the industrial wastewater is one of the major contributing factors of the water source pollution in South Africa, this study therefore aimed firstly at determining the effect of Benzatropine this source of pollution on the growth response of selected protozoan species compared to selected bacterial species, and secondly, comparing the ability of the test isolates to remove heavy metals. This study was conducted in laboratory-scale reactors which operated in batches. Methods Test organisms In this study, three bacterial species – Bacillus licheniformis ATCC12759, Brevibacillus laterosporus ATCC64 and Pseudomonas putida ATCC31483 – were purchased from Quantum Biotechnologies (Strydompark Randburg, South Africa). These bacterial species have been reported for their metal tolerance or removal [20–23] and antibiotic resistance [24].

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