Figure 9 XRD spectra of polished Cu foil (400 grit) and Cu film s

Figure 9 XRD spectra of polished Cu foil (400 grit) and Cu film specimens before heating. In addition, surface roughness is believed to have an effect on the growth of FGLNAs. Surface topography of unpolished Cu foil, polished Cu foil, and Cu film

specimens was measured by AFM, and the surface roughness was evaluated using the height of ditches, as shown in Figure 10. To compare with the stress condition, measured initial residual stress on the specimen surface before heating is also shown in Figure 10. It can be found that the 400-grit polishing specimen has a similar roughness as the Cu film specimen (around 1.4 μm). It was suspected that the surface roughness may increase the surface area, thereby promoting the surface oxidation

of the specimen (i.e., enhancing VGS), and there is an optimum value for the selleck chemicals growth of FGLNAs. It also can be found that the measured compressive stresses for the specimens of 800 and 1,000 grits polished are greatly larger than that of the 400-grit polished specimen. The reason why high-density Seliciclib mouse FGLNAs were not observed on these high initial stress specimens is that the relatively low surface roughness may lack enough surface area to further enhance the growth of FGLNAs on the specimens. Therefore, there is a balance between the initial compressive stress and surface roughness for the growth of FGLNAs. Figure 10 AFM topography image, surface ditch height, and residual stress. (a) AFM three-dimensional topography image of the unpolished Cu foil specimen. (b) Surface ditch height and residual stress of unpolished Cu foil, polished Cu foil, and Cu film specimens. Conclusions Cu2O FGLNAs which are 3.5 to 12 μm in size with 50- to 950-nm wide petals were successfully fabricated using the thermal RG-7388 order oxidation approach with catalyst under moderate humid atmosphere. The effect of surface conditions, such as surface stress, grain size, and roughness, on the growth of

FGLNAs was analyzed. Larger initial compressive stress, optimum grain size, and surface roughness were beneficial for the formation of FGLNAs. Compared with Immune system other methods for fabricating Cu2O FGLNAs, the thermal oxidation method featured remarkable simplicity and cheapness. Acknowledgements This work was supported by the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science under a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (A) 23246024. References 1. Xiong YJ, Li ZQ, Zhang R, Xie Y, Yang J, Wu CZ: From complex chains to 1D metal oxides: a novel strategy to Cu 2 O nanowires. J Phys Chem B 2003, 107:3697–3702.CrossRef 2. Caballero-Briones F, Palacios-Padros A, Calzadilla O, Moreira I d PR, Sanz Fausto : Disruption of the chemical environment and electronic structure in p-type Cu 2 O films by alkaline doping. J Phys Chem C 2012, 116:13524–13535.CrossRef 3. Akkari FC, Kanzari M: Optical, structural, and electrical properties of Cu 2 O thin films. Phys Status Solidi A 2010, 207:1647.CrossRef 4.

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