J Colloid Interface Sci 2004, 274:89–94 CrossRef 19 Menon NJ: Dy

J Colloid Interface Sci 2004, 274:89–94.CrossRef 19. Menon NJ: Dynamic specific heat of a supercooled liquid. Chem Phys 1996, 105:5246.

20. Chen F, Shulman J, Xue Y, Chu CW, Nolas GS: Thermal conductivity measurement under hydrostatic pressure using the 3 ω method. Rev Sci Instrum 2004, 75:4578.CrossRef 21. Cahill DG: Thermal conductivity measurement from 30 to 750 K: the 3ω method. Rev Sci Instrum 1990, 61:802.CrossRef Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Authors’ contributions RKN and AKR jointly BIBW2992 in vitro did the planning of the experiment, analysis of the data, and writing the manuscript. RKN did the synthesis, characterization, and the measurements. Both authors read and approved the final manuscript.”
“Background The clinical success of orthopedic and dental implants depends on the interaction between the implanted surface and bone tissues and, consequently, their osseointegration

[1]. Titanium implants are used widely in orthopedic surgery and dentistry for their favorable biocompatibility and corrosion resistance [2, 3]. Surface modification of the implanted material is a critical factor for tissue acceptance and cell survival. Among three different crystalline phases of titania (anatase, rutile, and amorphous titania), anatase phase is more favorable for cell adhesion and proliferation due to lower surface contact angles and/or wettability [4]. Several surface modification techniques, Ricolinostat i.e., sol–gel techniques, chemical (alkali/acid) treatment, anodization, plasma spray, hydroxyapatite-coated surface, and self-assembled monolayers, have been developed and are currently used with the

aim of enhancing the bioactivity of pure Ti surface [5–12]. Over the last decade, bisphosphonates (BPs) have attracted increasing attention as a surface modifier for orthopedic and dental implants. Bisphosphonates are stable pyrophosphates that prevent the loss of bone mass and are used widely to treat a range of diseases with excess bone resorption, such as bone metastasis, hypercalcemia of a malignancy, and Paget’s disease [13–16]. In orthopedic implants, the use of BP is expected to promote osteogenesis at the bone tissue/implant interface by inhibiting the activity of osteoclasts. BPs were reported to inhibit the differentiation of the osteoclast precursor and the resorptive Mannose-binding protein-associated serine protease activity of mature osteoclasts [17, 18]. Furthermore, BPs alter the morphology of osteoclasts, such as a lack of ruffled border and disruption of the actin ring, both in vitro and in vivo[19, 20]. García-Moreno et al. reported that BPs enhance the proliferation, differentiation, and bone-forming activity of osteoblasts directly [21]. Recently, pamidronic acid, a nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate, was reported to conjugate the titanium surface and stimulate new bone formations around the implant both in vitro and in vivo, which contribute to the success of the implant technology [22, 23].

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