After incubation, non-adherent cells were removed and adherent cells Enzalutamide clinical trial were harvested and counted. When the cell preparation showed ≥ 90% CD14 expression, the generation of MO and MDC
was carried out. Briefly, cells were cultured in RPMI-1640 supplemented with 10% FCS and glutamine (2 mM); granulocyte–macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) (50 ng/ml) (Leukomax, Schering-Plough, Dardilly, France) and interleukin (IL)-4 (40 ng/ml) (Peprotech, Rocky Hill, NJ, USA) were added for MDC generation, while G-CSF (50 ng/ml) was used for MO generation. After 5 days cells were tested for phenotype and maturation markers. Cell viability, characterization and maturation were assessed during the cell production process by light microscopy and flow cytometry using monoclonal antibodies CD1a-phycoerythrin (PE), CD14-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC), CD83-PE and CD86-FITC (BD, Becton Dickinson Europe, Pont-de-Claix, France). Viable cell preparations with a positivity higher than 95% for the specific markers were considered valid for subsequent analysis. MVC (Celsentri; selleck screening library Pfizer, Inc., New York, NY, USA) was dissolved in distilled water and stored
at −80°C until use. Monocytes, MO and MDCs (1 × 106/ml) were pre-incubated for different times (1–18 h) with various concentrations of MVC (0·1 µM, 1 µM, 10 µM) at 37°C under 5% CO2 atmosphere. Because, in preliminary experiments, we found no differences in incubation time, we
reported the data obtained from 18 h of MVC treatment. As controls, cells were incubated with medium alone. Drug concentrations were chosen on the basis of published data of pharmacokinetic parameters reported in MVC-treated patients [8,9]. MVC-treated cells at all concentrations used showed a viability ≥ 95%, as assessed by Trypan blue exclusion dye. The in vitro chemotactic activity was measured in an 8 µm pore size Transwell system (Becton Dickinson Europe). The following chemoattractants were used: synthetic Tolmetin peptide formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP) (10−5 M) (Sigma, St Louis, MO, USA), CCL5/regulated upon activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES) (100 ng/ml), CCL4/macrophage inflammatory protein-1 (MIP-1β) (100 nM) and CCL2/monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) (10 ng) (R&D Systems Europe Ltd, Abingdon, UK). A bell-shaped curve described the typical migratory response of cells to increasing concentrations of chemoattractant. Thus, in preliminary experiments, we performed a full dose–response analysis and we used the optimal doses able to induce the maximum chemotactic activity in our cell systems. Cell suspensions in FCS-free RPMI-1640 were used at a concentration of 1 × 106 cells/ml.