used a neonatal porcine model of ECMO to investigate whether rising plasma concentrations of inflammatory cytokines during ECMO reflect de novo synthesis of these mediators in inflamed tissues, and therefore, can be used to assess the severity of ECMO-related SIRS. Previously healthy piglets (3-week-old) were subjected to venoarterial ECMO for up to 8 h. SIRS was assessed by histopathological analysis, measurement of neutrophil activation (flow cytometry), plasma cytokine concentrations (enzyme immunoassays), and tissue expression of inflammatory genes (PCR/western blots). Mast cell degranulation was investigated Epacadostat by measurement of plasma tryptase activity. Porcine neonatal ECMO was associated with systemic inflammatory changes similar to those seen in human neonates. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) concentrations rose rapidly during the first 2 h of ECMO, faster than the tissue expression of these cytokines. ECMO was associated with increased plasma buy Nirogacestat mast cell tryptase activity, indicating that increased plasma concentrations of inflammatory cytokines during ECMO may result from mast cell degranulation and associated release of preformed cytokines stored in mast cells. TNF-alpha and IL-8 concentrations rose faster in plasma than in the peripheral tissues during ECMO,
indicating that rising plasma levels of these cytokines immediately after the initiation of ECMO may not reflect increasing tissue synthesis of these cytokines. Mobilization of preformed cellular
stores of inflammatory cytokines such as in mucosal mast cells may have an important pathophysiological role in ECMO-related SIRS. Laboratory Investigation (2010) 90, 128-139; doi:10.1038/labinvest.2009.119; published online JPH203 9 November 2009″
“Radial neuronal migration in the cerebral cortex depends on trophic factors and the activation of different voltage- and ligand-gated channels. To examine the functional role of GABA(C) receptors in radial migration we analyzed the effects of specific GABA(A) and GABA(C) receptor antagonists on the migration of BrdU-labeled neurons in vitro using organotypic neocortical slice cultures. These experiments revealed that the GABA(A) specific inhibitor bicuculline methiodide facilitated neuronal migration, while the GABA(C) specific inhibitor (1,2,5,6-tetrahydropyridine-4-yl) methylphosphinic-acid (TPMPA) impeded migration. Co-application of TPMPA and bicuculline methiodide or the unspecific ionotropic GABA receptor antagonist picrotoxin both impeded migration, suggesting that the GABA(C) receptor mediated effects dominate. Addition of the specific GABA(C) receptor agonist cis-4-aminocrotonic acid (CACA) also hampered migration, indicating that a physiological GABAergic stimulation is required for appropriate function.